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Table of Contents
Vol. 69, Suppl. 1, 1998
Issue release date: April 1998
Section title: Evolution: Reviewed Article
Folia Primatol 1998;69(suppl 1):250–285
(DOI:10.1159/000052716)

Evolutionary History of Lorisiform Primates

Tab Rasmussen, D. · Nekaris K.
Department of Anthropology, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Evolution: Reviewed Article

Published online: April 22, 1998
Issue release date: April 1998

Number of Print Pages: 36
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/FPR

Abstract

We integrate information from the fossil record, morphology, behavior and molecular studies to provide a current overview of lorisoid evolution. Several Eocene prosimians of the northern continents, including both omomyids and adapoids, have been suggested as possible lorisoid ancestors, but these cannot be substantiated as true strepsirhines. A small-bodied primate, Anchomomys, of the middle Eocene of Europe may be the best candidate among putative adapoids for status as a true strepsirhine. Recent finds of Eocene primates in Africa have revealed new prosimian taxa that are also viable contenders for strepsirhine status. Plesiopithecus teras is a Nycticebus-sized, nocturnal prosimian from the late Eocene, Fayum, Egypt, that shares cranial specializations with lorisoids, but it also retains primitive features (e.g. four premolars) and has unique specializations of the anterior teeth excluding it from direct lorisiform ancestry. Another unnamed Fayum primate resembles modern cheirogaleids in dental structure and body size. Two genera from Oman, Omanodon and Shizarodon, also reveal a mix of similarities to both cheirogaleids and anchomomyin adapoids. Resolving the phylogenetic position of these Africa primates of the early Tertiary will surely require more and better fossils. By the early to middle Miocene, lorisoids were well established in East Africa, and the debate about whether these represent lorisines or galagines is reviewed. Neontological data are used to address the controversial branching sequences among extant lorisid clades. Data from the skin and scent glands, when integrated with other lines of evidence, suggest that Asian and African lorisines share a common lorisine ancestry. The hypothesis of an African clade containing both pottos and galagos to the exclusion of Asian lorisines is less tenable. True galagines are found in the fossil record of Namibia, while true lorisines are known from the Miocene of Asia. The hypothetical branching sequences can be integrated with behavioral and morphological features to develop an adaptive model of lorisoid divergence. By specializing on two different foraging modes early in their radiation, lorisines and galagines subsequently underwent a chain of integrated evolutionary changes eventually having an impact on many components of locomotor behavior, anatomy, physiology, reproduction, life history, and social behavior. Ongoing evolutionary studies of extant galagines are illuminating population phenomena and processes of speciation in an ecological context.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Evolution: Reviewed Article

Published online: April 22, 1998
Issue release date: April 1998

Number of Print Pages: 36
Number of Figures: 10
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0015-5713 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9980 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/FPR


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.