Adult Neurogenesis and Neuronal Regeneration in the Central Nervous System of Teleost FishZupanc G.K.H.
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, and School of Engineering and Science, International University Bremen, Bremen, Germany
In contrast to mammals, teleost fish exhibit an enormous potential to produce new neurons in the adult central nervous system and to replace damaged neurons by newly generated ones. In the gymnotiform fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus, on average, 100,000 cells, corresponding to roughly 0.2% of the total population of cells in the adult brain, are in S-phase within any 2-h period. As in all other teleosts examined thus far, many of these cells are produced in specific proliferation zones located at or near the surface of ventricular, paraventricular, and cisternal systems, or in areas that are likely derived from proliferation zones located at ventricular surfaces during embryonic development. The majority of cells born in such proliferation zones migrate within the first few weeks following their generation to specific target areas. In the cerebellum, where approximately 75% of all brain cells are born during adulthood, cells originate from the molecular layers of the corpus cerebelli and the valvula cerebelli partes lateralis and medialis, as well as from the eminentia granularis pars medialis. From these proliferation zones, the young cells migrate to the associated granule cell layers or to the eminentia granularis pars posterior, respectively. In the course of their migration, the young cells appear to be guided by radial glial fibers. Upon arrival at their target region, approximately 50% of the young cerebellar cells undergo apoptosis. The remaining cells survive for the rest of the fish’s life, thus contributing to permanent brain growth. At least some cells differentiate into granule cell neurons. The potential to produce new neurons, together with the ability to guide the young cells to their target areas by radial glial fibers and to eliminate damaged cells through apoptosis, also forms the basis for the enormous regenerative capability of the central nervous system of Apteronotus, as demonstrated in the cerebellum and spinal cord. A factor involved in the cerebellar regeneration appears to be somatostatin, as the expression of this neuropeptide is up-regulated in a specific spatio-temporal fashion following mechanical lesions. Besides its involvement in neuronal regeneration adult neurogenesis in Apteronotus, and possibly teleost fish in general, appears to play a role in providing central neurons to match the growing number of sensory and motor elements in the periphery, and to establish the neural substrate to accommodate behavioral plasticity.
© 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Günther K.H. Zupanc
School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester
3.614 Stopford Building, Oxford Road
Manchester M13 9PT (UK)
Tel. +44 161 275 7278, Fax +44 161 275 3938, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Number of Print Pages : 26
Number of Figures : 13, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 143
Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Founded 1968 and continued 1968–1986 by W. Riss, New York, N.Y.
Official Organ of the J.B. Johnston Club
Vol. 58, No. 5, Year 2001 (Cover Date: 2001)
Journal Editor: Walter Wilczynski, Austin, Tex.
ISSN: 0006–8977 (print), 1421–9743 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/bbe