Iron: Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration
Brain Iron Metabolism and Neurodegenerative DisordersSipe J.C. · Lee P. · Beutler E.
Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Scripps Research Institute (MEM-215), La Jolla, Calif., USA
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Iron, an essential element for central nervous system (CNS) function, has frequently been found to accumulate in brain regions that undergo degeneration in neurological diseases such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Friedreich ataxia and other disorders. However, the precise role of iron in the cause of many neurodegenerative diseases is unclear. To assist in understanding the potential importance of iron in CNS disease, this review summarizes the present knowledge in the areas of CNS iron metabolism, homeostasis and disregulation of iron balance caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in iron transport, storage and metabolism. This review encompasses neurodegenerative disorders associated with both iron overload and deficiency to highlight areas where iron misregulation is likely to be important in the pathophysiology of several human brain diseases.
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