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Table of Contents
Vol. 10, No. 4, 2003
Issue release date: July – August
Section title: Original Paper
J Biomed Sci 2003;10:436–450
(DOI:10.1159/000071163)

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 nef Gene Associated with Vertical Transmission

Hahn T. · Ramakrishnan R. · Ahmad N.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, Ariz., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: February 07, 2003
Accepted: March 14, 2003
Published online: June 27, 2003
Issue release date: July – August

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1021-7770 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0127 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JBS

Abstract

The nef gene is conserved among members of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses and may play an important role in viral pathogenesis. To determine the evolutionary dynamics and conservation of functionality of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene during maternal-fetal transmission, we analyzed nef sequences from seven mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission, including a mother with infected twin infants. The nef open reading frame was maintained in mother-infant isolates with a frequency of 86.2% following vertical transmission. While there was a low degree of viral heterogeneity and estimates of genetic diversity and high population growth rates of nef sequences from mother-infant isolates, the infants’ nef sequences were slightly higher with respect to these parameters compared with the mothers’ sequences. Both the mothers’ and infants’ nef sequences were under positive selection pressure, as determined by a new method of Nielsen and Yang [Genetics 148:929–936;1998]. Based on genetic distance and phylogenetic parameters, the epidemiologically linked nef sequences from mother-infant pairs were closer to each other compared with epidemiologically unlinked sequences from individuals. The functional domains essential for Nef activity, including membrane binding, CD4 and MHC-I downmodulation, T cell activation and interaction with factors of the cellular protein trafficking machinery, were conserved in most of the sequences from mother-infant pairs. The maintenance of intact nef open reading frames with conserved functional domains and a low degree of genetic variability following vertical transmission supports the notion that nef plays an important role in HIV-1 infection and replication in mothers and their perinatally infected infants.

© 2003 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: February 07, 2003
Accepted: March 14, 2003
Published online: June 27, 2003
Issue release date: July – August

Number of Print Pages: 15
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 1021-7770 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0127 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JBS


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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