Inhibitory Action of Natural Carrageenans on Herpes simplex Virus Infection of Mouse AstrocytesCarlucci M.J. · Scolaro L.A. · Damonte E.B.
Laboratorio de Virología, Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina
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The effects of the carrageenans 1T1 (λ-type), 1C1 (κ/ι-type) and 1C3 (ιι/ν-type), isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection of murine astrocytes were investigated. The three compounds were effective inhibitors of virus replication, as determined by a virus yield inhibition assay, in astrocytes as well as in Vero cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration was in the range of 0.9–3.6 and 0.4–3.2 μg/ml for astrocytes and Vero cells, respectively, whereas the 90% inhibitory concentration ranged from 6.5 to 17.0 μg/ml in astrocytes and from 3.5 to 22.2 μg/ml in Vero cells. No cytotoxicity was detected at concentrations of up to 1,000 μg/ml, indicating high selectivity indices for these compounds. Inhibition of viral cytopathology and antigen expression was also detected in the presence of the carrageenans. The increase in the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an activated astrocyte marker, produced during the course of HSV-1 infection in astrocytes, was reversed in the presence of 1C1 and 1C3. By contrast, the λ-carrageenan 1T1 increased the expression of GFAP, independently of HSV-1 infection.
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