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Table of Contents
Vol. 2, No. 4, 2003
Issue release date: August 2004
Section title: Mini-Review
Neuroembryology 2003;2:175–179
(DOI:10.1159/000079404)

Genetic, Environmental and Immunologic Factors in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Bölte S. · Poustka F.
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/M., Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Mini-Review

Received: September 18, 2003
Accepted: September 29, 2003
Published online: November 17, 2004
Issue release date: August 2004

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1661-3406 (Print)
eISSN: 1661-3414 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NBA

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders are early-onset chronic conditions of qualitatively impaired social interaction and reciprocal communication with an estimated prevalence rate of 0.6%. Autism is heterogeneous in phenotype and comorbidity. Its precise etiology remains largely an enigma, but twin and family studies indicate substantial hereditary fundamentals. In this report, we briefly review the progress of molecular genetic, environmental and (auto-)immunologic research in autism and similar conditions. At the present time, idiopathic autism is assumed to be an oligogenic epistatic disorder. In a minority of cases, some Mendelian syndromes and other medical conditions as well as exogenous and immune mechanisms may also cause or trigger autism. A standard epidemiologic vulnerability model has been proposed to integrate possible major and minor risks of different origin.

© 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Mini-Review

Received: September 18, 2003
Accepted: September 29, 2003
Published online: November 17, 2004
Issue release date: August 2004

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1661-3406 (Print)
eISSN: 1661-3414 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NBA


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