The main research activities of the last decades on tocopherols were mainly focused on α-tocopherol, in particular when considering the biological activities. However, recent studies have increased the knowledge on γ-tocopherol, which is the major form of vitamin E in the diet in the USA, but not in Europe. γ-Tocopherol provides different antioxidant activities in food and in-vitro studies and showed higher activity in trapping lipophilic electrophiles and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species. The lower plasma levels of γ- compared to α-tocopherol might be discussed in the light of different bioavailability, but also in a potential transformation from γ- into α-tocopherol. From the metabolism end product, only that of γ-tocopherol (2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(β-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman), but not that of α-tocopherol, was identified to provide natriuretic activity. Studies also indicate that only the γ-tocopherol plasma level served as biomarker for cancer and cardiovascular risk. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review on γ-tocopherol with emphasis on its chemistry, biosynthesis, occurrence in food, different intake linking to different plasma levels in USA and Europe, absorption and metabolism, biological activities, and possible role in human health.
© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Published online: 8/20/2004
Issue release date: May–June 2004
Number of Print Pages: 20
Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 4
ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.