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Vol. 50, Suppl. 1, 2004
Issue release date: August 2004
Section title: Paper
Chemotherapy 2004;50(suppl 1):3–10
(DOI:10.1159/000079816)

Comparative Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Respiratory Tract Pathogens

Felmingham D.
G.R. Micro Ltd., London, UK

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/18/2004

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0009-3157 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9794 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CHE

Abstract

Bacterial respiratory tract infections (RTIs), whether primary or subsequent to viral infection, are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Treatment of these infections is most often empirical. Therefore, an antimicrobial’s antibacterial spectrum must include the most likely pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most frequent cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as atypicals such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae. In addition, knowledge of antimicrobial resistance among these key pathogens is imperative for physicians to choose the most appropriate therapeutic agent. The latest data from global surveillance studies indicates that high-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≧2 mg/l) among isolates of S. pneumoniae varies widely by geographic location. Rates exceed 20% in the USA, Mexico, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Spain, France, Greece, Hungary, and the Slovak Republic. In South Africa, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and South Korea rates exceed 50%. Penicillin non-susceptibility – including isolates exhibiting high-level resistance and intermediate susceptibility (MIC 0.12–1 mg/l) – is frequently found in association with macrolide resistance, which is found at a prevalence of 70–80% in some Asian countries. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and tetracycline resistance, either individually or combined with macrolide resistance as multiple resistance, is also associated with reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Another concern about antimicrobial resistance in respiratory tract pathogens is β-lactamase production among isolates of H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. However, respiratory fluoroquinolones, of which levofloxacin has been available for the longest time, currently remain active against the great majority of common bacterial respiratory pathogens, including atypicals.


  

Author Contacts

Dr. David Felmingham, Chief Executive
GR Micro Ltd., 7–9 William Road
London NW1 3ER (UK)
Tel. +44 20 7388 7320, Fax +44 20 7388 7324
E-Mail D.Felmingham@grmicro.co.uk

  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 8
Number of Figures : 6, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 19

  

Publication Details

Chemotherapy (International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Chemotherapy)
Founded 1959 as ‘Chemotherapia’

Vol. 50, No. Suppl. 1, Year 2004 (Cover Date: Released August 2004)

Journal Editor: F. Sörgel, Nürnberg-Heroldsberg
ISSN: 0009–3157 (print), 1421–9794 (Online)

For additional information:http://www.karger.com/che


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: 8/18/2004

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 6
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0009-3157 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9794 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CHE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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