Dietary Folate and the Risk of Depression in Finnish Middle-Aged Men
A Prospective Follow-Up StudyTolmunen T. · Hintikka J. · Ruusunen A. · Voutilainen S. · Tanskanen A. · Valkonen V.-P. · Viinamäki H. · Kaplan G.A. · Salonen J.T.
aDepartment of Psychiatry, bResearch Institute of Public Health and cDepartment of Public Health and General Practice, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, and dInner Savo Health Centre, Suonenjoki, Finland; eDepartment of Epidemiology, Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., USA
Background: Several cross-sectional studies have focused on the low blood folate levels of depressive patients. Nevertheless, no prospective studies have been published on the association between dietary folate and depression. Methods: We studied the association between dietary folate and cobalamin and receiving a discharge diagnosis of depression in a prospective follow-up setting. Our cohort was recruited between 1984 and 1989 and followed until the end of 2000, and it consisted of 2,313 men aged between 42and 60 years from eastern Finland. Results: The mean intake of folate in the whole cohort was 256 µg/day (SD = 76). Those below the median of energy-adjusted folate intake had higher risk of getting discharge diagnosis of depression (RR 3.04, 95% CI: 1.58, 5.86) during the follow-up period than those who had a folate intake above the median. This excess risk remained significant after adjustment for current socioeconomic status, the baseline HPL depression score, the energy-adjusted daily intake of fibre and vitamin C, and the total fat intake. Conclusions: A low dietary intake of folate may be a risk factor for severe depression. This also indicates that nutrition may have a role in the prevention of depression.
Prof. J.T. Salonen
Research Institute of Public Health
University of Kuopio
PO Box 1627, FI–70211 Kuopio (Finland)
Tel. +358 1716 2990, Fax +358 1716 2937, E-Mail email@example.com
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 30
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Vol. 73, No. 6, Year 2004 (Cover Date: November-December 2004)
Journal Editor: G.A. Fava, Bologna
ISSN: 0033–3190 (print), 1423–0348 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/pps