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Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus Strains Derived Worldwide: Genotypes, Subgenotypes, and HBsAg SubtypesNorder H.a · Couroucé A.-M.e · Coursaget P.c · Echevarria J.M.d · Lee S.-D.f · Mushahwar I.K.g · Robertson B.H.h · Locarnini S.b · Magnius L.O.a
aSwedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden; bVictorian Infectious Diseases and Centre for Clinical Research Excellence in Infectious Diseases, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; cLaboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire, INSERM U618, IFR 136 Agents Transmissibles et Infectiologie, Faculté des Sciences Pharmaceutiques Ph. Maupas, Tours, France; dService of Diagnostic Microbiology, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; eUnité de Virologie Transfusionnelle, Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris, France; fDepartment of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital and National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, and gCore Research and Development, Infectious Disease Group, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill., and hDivision of Viral Hepatitis A33, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga., USA
Sequences of 234 complete genomes and 631 hepatitis B surface antigen genes were used to assess the worldwide diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Apart from the described two subgenotypes each for A and F, also B, C, and D divided into four subgenotypes each in the analysis of complete genomes supported by significant bootstrap values. The subgenotypes of B and C differed in their geographical distribution, with B1 dominating in Japan, B2 in China and Vietnam, B3 confined to Indonesia, and B4 confined to Vietnam, all strains specifying subtype ayw1. Subgenotype C1 was common in Japan, Korea, and China; C2 in China, South-East Asia, and Bangladesh, and C3 in the Oceania comprising strains specifying adrq–, and C4 specifying ayw3 is encountered in Aborigines from Australia. This pattern of defined geographical distribution was less evident for D1–D4, where the subgenotypes were widely spread in Europe, Africa, and Asia, possibly due to their divergence having occurred a longer time ago than for genotypes B and C, with D4 being the first split and still the dominating subgenotype of D in the Oceania. The genetic diversity of HBV and the geographical distribution of its subgenotypes provide a tool to reconstruct the evolutionary history of HBV and may help to complement genetic data in the understanding of the evolution and past migrations of man.
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