Olfactory Structures in Staged Human EmbryosMüller F. · O'Rahilly R.
School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Calif., USA
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
The olfactory region was investigated in 303 serially sectioned human embryos, 23 of which were controlled by precise graphic reconstructions. The following findings in the embryonic period are new for the human. (1) The nasal plates arise at the neurosomatic junction, as do also the otic placodes. (2) Crest comes from the nasal plates later (stage 13) than the maximum production in the neural folds (stage 10). (3) The crest arises and migrates during a much longer time (at least until the end of the embryonic period) than the neural crest of the head, where origin and migration end at stage 12. (4) Olfactory nerve fibres enter the brain at stage 17, the vomeronasal fibres and those of the nervus terminalis at stages 17 and 18. (5) Fibre connections between the olfactory tubercle and the olfactory bulb, as well as those to the amygdaloid nuclei, forebrain septum, and hippocampus, develop during and after stage 17. (6) Mitral cells appear late in the embryonic period. (7) Localized, although incomplete, lamination of the olfactory bulb is detectable at the embryonic/fetal transition. (8) Tangential migratory streams of neurons, from stage 22 to the early fetal period, proceed from the subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb towards the future claustrum; they remain within the insular region but are separated from the cortical plate. (9) In future cebocephaly morphological indications may be visible as early as stage 13. The various findings are integrated by means of staging, and current information for the fetal period is tabulated from the literature.
© 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.