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Table of Contents
Vol. 109, No. 1-3, 2005
Issue release date: March 2005
Section title: Chromosome Evolution, Cytotaxonomy
Cytogenet Genome Res 109:250–258 (2005)
(DOI:10.1159/000082407)

Allopolyploidy – a shaping force in the evolution of wheat genomes

Feldman M. · Levy A.A.
Plant Sciences, The Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Chromosome Evolution, Cytotaxonomy

Received: March 01, 2004
Accepted: November 03, 2004
Published online: March 08, 2005
Issue release date: March 2005

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1424-8581 (Print)
eISSN: 1424-859X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CGR

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that allopolyploidy accelerates genome evolution in wheat in two ways: (1) allopolyploidization triggers rapid genome changes (revolutionary changes) through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic alterations, and (2) the allopolyploid condition facilitates sporadic genomic changes during the life of the species (evolutionary changes) that are not attainable at the diploid level. The revolutionary changes comprise (1) non-random elimination of coding and non-coding DNA sequences, (2) epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation of coding and non-coding DNA leading, among others, to gene silencing, (3) activation of genes and retroelements which in turn alters the expression of adjacent genes. These highly reproducible changes occur in the F1 hybrids or in the first generation(s) of the nascent allopolyploids and were similar to those that occurred twice in nature: first in the formation of allotetraploid wheat (∼0.5 million years ago) and second in the formation of hexaploid wheat (∼10,000 years ago). Elimination of non-coding sequences from one of the two homoeologous pairs in tetraploids and from two homoeologous pairs in hexaploids, augments the differentiation of homoeologous chromosomes at the polyploid level, thus providing the physical basis for the diploid-like meiotic behavior of allopolyploid wheat. Regulation of gene expression may lead to improved inter-genomic interactions. Gene inactivation brings about rapid diploidization while activation of genes through demethylation or through transcriptional activation of retroelements altering the expression of adjacent genes, leads to novel expression patterns. The evolutionary changes comprise (1) horizontal inter-genomic transfer of chromosome segments between the constituent genomes, (2) production of recombinant genomes through hybridization and introgression between different allopolyploid species or, more seldom, between allopolyploids and diploids, and (3) mutations. These phenomena, emphasizing the plasticity of the genome with regards to both structure and function, might improve the adaptability of the newly formed allopolyploids and facilitate their rapid and successful establishment in nature.   

© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Chromosome Evolution, Cytotaxonomy

Received: March 01, 2004
Accepted: November 03, 2004
Published online: March 08, 2005
Issue release date: March 2005

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 3

ISSN: 1424-8581 (Print)
eISSN: 1424-859X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CGR


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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