LINEs, SINEs and processed pseudogenes: parasitic strategies for genome modelingDewannieux M. · Heidmann T.
Unité des Rétrovirus Endogènes et Eléments Rétroïdes des Eucaryotes Supérieurs, UMR 8122 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)
Two major classes of retrotransposons have invaded eukaryotic genomes: the LTR retrotransposons closely resembling the proviral integrated form of infectious retroviruses, and the non-LTR retrotransposons including the widespread, autonomous LINE elements. Here, we review the modeling effects of the latter class of elements, which are the most active in humans, and whose enzymatic machinery is subverted to generate a large series of “secondary” retroelements. These include the processed pseudogenes, naturally present in all eukaryotic genomes possessing non-LTR retroelements, and the very successful SINE elements such as the human Alu sequences which have evolved refined parasitic strategies to efficiently bypass the original “protectionist” cis-preference of LINEs for their own retrotransposition.
© 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel
Request reprints from Thierry Heidmann, Unité des Rétrovirus Endogènes et
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Supported by the CNRS and the Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer.
Manuscript received 6 March 2004;
accepted in revised form for publication by J.-N. Volff 22 April 2004.
Number of Print Pages : 14
Number of Figures : 5, Number of Tables : 0, Number of References : 147
Cytogenetic and Genome Research
Vol. 110, No. 1-4, Year 2005 (Cover Date: 2005)
Journal Editor: H.P. Klinger, Bronx, N.Y.; M. Schmid, Würzburg
ISSN: 1424–8581 (print), 1424–859X (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/cgr