Effects of Maternal Nicotine Exposure during Lactation on Breast-Fed Rat PupsÖzokutan B.H.a · Özkan K.U.c · Sarı İ.b · İnanç F.d · Güldür M.E.b · Kılınç M.d
Departments of aPediatric Surgery and bPathology, Gaziantep University Medical Faculty, Gaziantep, and Departments of cPediatric Surgery and dBiochemistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University Medical Faculty, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey
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Background: Nicotine is known to be associated with adverse effects in infants and children. It is concentrated in breast milk and is absorbed by the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects on breast-fed rat pups of maternal nicotine exposure during lactation. Methods: In the experimental group (n = 6), nicotine was given to lactating dams (2 mg/kg/day) after delivery and continued for 10 days during lactation. Control animals (n = 4) received saline for the same duration. The suckling rats were weighed and killed on postnatal day 10, and samples were taken from the lung, liver, kidney, spleen and small intestine for histopathological examination. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in the liver of the dam and the offspring. Results: Histopathological changes in the liver of the nicotine-exposed group showed portal inflammatory infiltrate, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes, and focal necrosis in the parenchyma. Thickening of alveolar walls because of interstitial inflammation was noted in the lungs. Histopathological examination of kidney, spleen and small intestine tissue did not reveal any abnormality. In the experimental group, SOD and CAT activities were significantly decreased (p <0.001) but MDA levels were significantly increased (p <0.001) compared with the control group. Conclusion: These results indicate that maternal nicotine exposure induces oxidative stress and causes detrimental histopathological changes in the lung and liver of lactating offspring.
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