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Matrix Metalloproteinases and Their Inhibitors in the Developing Mouse Brain and Spinal Cord: A Reverse Transcription Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction StudyUlrich R. · Gerhauser I. · Seeliger F. · Baumgärtner W. · Alldinger S.
Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMPs) are essential for coordinated extracellular matrix turnover during central nervous system development. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was employed to evaluate the mRNA expression of MMP-2, -3, -7, -9, -10, -11, -12, -13, -14, -15, and -24, and TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4 in the prosencephalon, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord of 1- to 40-week-old mice. The molecular data were interpreted in the context of morphological observations. Significantly higher expression levels of MMP-2, -11, -13, -14, -15, and -24, and TIMP-1 and -3 were found in the brain and spinal cord 1 week after birth compared to later time points, while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 upregulation was restricted to the brain. This upregulation coincided with the maximal extension of the transient cerebellar external granular layer, a marker of neuronal progenitor proliferation and migration. MMP-12 was significantly upregulated at later time points and found to be positively correlated with myelination in the rhombencephalon and spinal cord. MMP-3, -7, and -10 mRNA expressions remained unchanged or were negligible. In summary, while most of the MMPs and TIMPs studied seem to be involved in cell proliferation and migration, MMP-12 might be decisive for myelination.
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