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Effect of Pulsed Estrogen Therapy on Hemostatic Markers in Comparison with Oral Estrogen Regimen in Postmenopausal WomenBasurto L. · Saucedo R. · Zárate A. · Martínez C. · Gaminio E. · Reyes E. · Hernandez M.
Endocrine Research Unit, Nacional Medical Center, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and Department of Hematology, Hospital General de México, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, Mexico
Background/Aims: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism dependent on the type of HRT; therefore, we compared therapy effects of intranasal with oral estrogens on coagulation and fibrinolysis markers in postmenopausal women. Methods: A randomized study in which 29 healthy hysterectomized women received intranasal 17β-estradiol or oral estrogens for 3 months. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between groups. Those women receiving intranasal estradiol showed a mild increment in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-I) (from 6.8 ± 3.5 to 9.6 ± 3.9 U/ml, p < 0.01); however, fibrinogen, factor VII-tissue factor complex (VIIa-rTF), antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C (PC) activity, protein S (PS) activity, plasminogen (PLG), and tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA) were unchanged. In contrast, oral unopposed estrogens elevated t-PA (from 4.9 ± 2.9 to 9.6 ± 5.1 ng/ml, p < 0.01) in parallel with a decrement in PAI-I (from 5.2 ± 4.0 to 2.7 ± 1.7 U/ml, p < 0.05) and VIIa-rTF (from 201.2 ± 181.0 to 140.6 ± 108.7 mU/ml, p < 0.05). Fibrinogen, ATIII, PC, PS, and PLG were unchanged. Conclusions: Nasal 17β-estradiol had no effect on the coagulation markers, except a moderate increment in PAI-1. In contrast, oral estrogens elicited a decrement in both VIIa-rTF and PAI-1; however, those changes did not surpass normal limits.
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