Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.



Login with Facebook

Forgot your password?

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login
(Shibboleth or Open Athens)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Tinnitus as an Alarm Bell: Stress Reaction Tinnitus Model

Alpini D.a · Cesarani A.b

Author affiliations

aScientific Institute S. Maria Nascente, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, and bENT Institute, University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Related Articles for ""

ORL 2006;68:31–37

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: May 09, 2005
Accepted: July 29, 2005
Published online: March 07, 2006
Issue release date: March 2006

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0301-1569 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0275 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ORL

Abstract

Stress is a significant factor influencing the clinical course of tinnitus. Auditory system is particularly sensitive to the effects of different stress factors (chemical, oxidative, emotional, etc.). Different stages of reaction (alarm, resistance, exhaustion) lead to different characteristics of tinnitus and different therapeutic approaches. Individual characteristics of stress reaction may explain different aspects of tinnitus in various patients with different responses to treatment, despite similar audiological and ethiological factors. A model based on individual reactions to stress factors (stress reaction tinnitus model) could explaintinnitus as an alarm signal, just like an ‘alarm bell’, informing the patient that something potentially dangerous for subject homeostasis is happening. Tinnitus could become a disabling symptom when the subject is chronically exposed to a stress factor and is unable to switch off the alarm. Stress signals, specific for each patient, have to be identified during the ‘alarm’ phase in order to prevent an evolution toward the ‘resistance’ and ‘exhaustion’ phases. In these phases, identification of stressor is no more sufficient, due to the organization of a ‘paradoxical auditory memory’ and a ‘pathologically shifted attention to tinnitus’. Identification of stress reaction phase requires accurate otolaryngology and anamnesis combined with audiological matching tests (Feldman Masking Test, for example) and psychometric questionnaires (Tinnitus Reaction and Tinnitus Cognitive Questionnaires).

© 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: May 09, 2005
Accepted: July 29, 2005
Published online: March 07, 2006
Issue release date: March 2006

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 0301-1569 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0275 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ORL


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.