Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares: A Pilot StudySpoormaker V.I. · van den Bout J.
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Background: The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of the cognitive-restructuring technique ‘lucid dreaming treatment’ (LDT) on chronic nightmares. Becoming lucid (realizing that one is dreaming) during a nightmare allows one to alter the nightmare storyline during the nightmare itself. Methods: After having filled out a sleep and a posttraumatic stress disorder questionnaire, 23 nightmare sufferers were randomly divided into 3 groups; 8 participants received one 2-hour individual LDT session, 8 participants received one 2-hour group LDT session, and 7 participants were placed on the waiting list. LDT consisted of exposure, mastery, and lucidity exercises. Participants filled out the same questionnaires 12 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Results: At follow-up the nightmare frequency of both treatment groups had decreased. There were no significant changes in sleep quality and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Lucidity was not necessary for a reduction in nightmare frequency. Conclusions: LDT seems effective in reducing nightmare frequency, although the primary therapeutic component (i.e. exposure, mastery, or lucidity) remains unclear.
Victor I. Spoormaker
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University
PO Box 80.140
NL–3508 TC Utrecht (The Netherlands)
Tel. +31 6 2927 7559, Fax +31 3 0253 4718, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 44
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Vol. 75, No. 6, Year 2006 (Cover Date: October 2006)
Journal Editor: Fava, G.A. (Bologna)
ISSN: 0033–3190 (print), 1423–0348 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS