Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares: A Pilot StudySpoormaker V.I. · van den Bout J.
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Background: The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of the cognitive-restructuring technique ‘lucid dreaming treatment’ (LDT) on chronic nightmares. Becoming lucid (realizing that one is dreaming) during a nightmare allows one to alter the nightmare storyline during the nightmare itself. Methods: After having filled out a sleep and a posttraumatic stress disorder questionnaire, 23 nightmare sufferers were randomly divided into 3 groups; 8 participants received one 2-hour individual LDT session, 8 participants received one 2-hour group LDT session, and 7 participants were placed on the waiting list. LDT consisted of exposure, mastery, and lucidity exercises. Participants filled out the same questionnaires 12 weeks after the intervention (follow-up). Results: At follow-up the nightmare frequency of both treatment groups had decreased. There were no significant changes in sleep quality and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Lucidity was not necessary for a reduction in nightmare frequency. Conclusions: LDT seems effective in reducing nightmare frequency, although the primary therapeutic component (i.e. exposure, mastery, or lucidity) remains unclear.
© 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel
Victor I. Spoormaker
Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University
PO Box 80.140
NL–3508 TC Utrecht (The Netherlands)
Tel. +31 6 2927 7559, Fax +31 3 0253 4718, E-Mail email@example.com
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 44
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Vol. 75, No. 6, Year 2006 (Cover Date: October 2006)
Journal Editor: Fava, G.A. (Bologna)
ISSN: 0033–3190 (print), 1423–0348 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS