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Vol. 13, No. 1, 2007
Issue release date: December 2006
Section title: Research Report
Eur Addict Res 2007;13:11–19
(DOI:10.1159/000095810)

Crack Cocaine: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study of Treated Patients

Ribeiro M. · Dunn J. · Sesso R. · Lima M.S. · Laranjeira R.
aUnidade de Pesquisa em Ðlcool e Drogas, Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; bNorth Camden Drug Service, Camden and Islington Mental Health and Social Care Trust, London, UK; cGrupo Interdepartamental de Epidemiologia Clinica, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, and dEli Lilly Brazil, Federal University of Pelotas, Catholic University of Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Report

Published online: 12/18/2006

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 1022-6877 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9891 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EAR

Abstract

Objectives: To follow-up a group of 131 crack cocaine users and examine drug use, treatment experience, employment status, involvement in crime and mortality at 2 and 5 years. Methods: Consecutive crack-dependent patients who were admitted to a detoxification unit in São Paulo between 1992 and 1994 were re-interviewed on two occasions: 1995–1996 and 1998–1999. Results: 5 years after treatment information was obtained on 124 (95%) of the original cohort. 39.7% (n = 52) of the patients reported having been abstinent from cocaine for at least the last year, and 21.4% (n = 28) had used the drug. Of those subjects not using cocaine at 2 years, 19 (62%) were still abstinent at 5 years. Twenty-three (17.6%) patients had died by the 5-year follow-up with homicide, due to firearms or other weapons, being the commonest cause (n = 13). The annual adjusted mortality rate for the sample was 24.92 deaths/1,000 individuals, the excess mortality rate was of 21.64 deaths/1,000 individuals, and the standardized mortality ratio was 7.60. A history of injecting drug use, unemployment at the time of the index admission and administrative discharge at the index admission were factors that contributed to the risk of dying over the next 5 years. Conclusions: There was a progressive movement towards abstinence over the follow-up period, and there was evidence that once abstinence had been achieved it was maintained. On the other hand, the mortality rate was extremely high and was higher among those who were still using crack at 2 years.


  

Author Contacts

Dr. Marcelo Ribeiro
Alameda Sarutaiá 160, apto. 34
01403-010 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
Tel./Fax +55 11 5571 0493
E-Mail marcelo@uniad.org.br

  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 29

  

Publication Details

European Addiction Research

Vol. 13, No. 1, Year 2007 (Cover Date: December 2006)

Journal Editor: Krausz, M. (Hamburg)
ISSN: 1022–6877 (print), 1421–9891 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EAR


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Report

Published online: 12/18/2006

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 1022-6877 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9891 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EAR


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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