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Table of Contents
Vol. 76, No. 2, 2007
Issue release date: January 2007
Section title: Special Article
Psychother Psychosom 2007;76:70–76
(DOI:10.1159/000097965)

Is There a Continuity between Bipolar and Depressive Disorders?

Benazzi F.
Hecker Psychiatry Research Center, and Department of Psychiatry, National Health Service, Forli, Italy; Department of Psychiatry, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Special Article

Published online: February 01, 2007
Issue release date: January 2007

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS

Abstract

Background: Recent studies questioned the current categorical split of mood disorders into bipolar disorders (BP) and depressive disorders (MDD). Methods: Medline database search of papers from the last 10 years on the categorical-dimensional classification of mood disorders. Various combinations of the following key words were used: mood disorders, bipolar, unipolar, major depressive disorder, spectrum, category/categorical, classification, continuity. Only English language clinical papers were included, review papers were excluded, similar papers selected by quality. The number of papers found was 1,141. The number of papers selected was 109. Results: The continuity/spectrum between BP (mainly BP-II) and MDD was supported by the following findings:(1) high frequency of mixed states (mixed mania, mixed hypomania, mixed depression, i.e. co-occurring depression and noneuphoric manic/hypomanic symptoms) because opposite polarity symptoms in the same episode do not support a hypomania/mania-depression splitting; (2) MDD was the most common mood disorder in BP probands’ relatives; (3) no bimodal distribution of distinguishing symptoms between BP and MDD; (4) bipolar signs not uncommon in MDD; (5) many MDD shifting to BP; (6) many lifetime manic/hypomanic symptoms in MDD; (7) correlation between lifetime manic/hypomanic symptoms and MDD symptoms; (8) hypomania factors in MDD; (9) MDD often recurrent; (10) similar cognitive style.The categorical distinction between BP (mainly BP-I) and MDD was supported by the following findings: (1) BP more common in BP probands’ relatives; (2) lower age at BP onset; (3) females as common as males in BP-I, more common than males in MDD; (4) BP-I depression more atypical and retarded, MDD depression more sleepless and agitated; (5) BP more recurrent. Conclusions: Focusing on mood spectrum’s extremes (BP-I vs. MDD), a categorical distinction seems supported. Focusing on midway disorders (BP-II and MDD plus bipolar signs), a continuity/spectrum seems supported. Results seem to support both a categorical and a dimensional view of mood disorders.

© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Special Article

Published online: February 01, 2007
Issue release date: January 2007

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.