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High-Fat- and Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats: The Comparison of Glucose Metabolism, Plasma Resistin and Adiponectin LevelsLi L.a · Yang G.b · Li Q.a · Tang Y.b · Li K.b
aDepartment of Clinical Biochemistry and Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, and bDepartment of Endocrinology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China
Aims: In animal models, both an acute elevation in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) via intravenous infusion of a lipid emulsion and a chronic elevation in plasma FFA via high-fat feeding have been shown to induce skeletal muscle and liver insulin resistance. However, there have been very few studies comparing the effects of high-fat- and lipid-induced insulin resistance on glucose metabolism and adipocytokines. Methods: In the current study, we used lipid infusion and a high-fat feed in combination with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique to assess the impact of acute and chronically elevated FFA levels on overall glucose metabolism and insulin action; two adipocytokines, resistin and adiponectin, were used. Results: At baseline, plasma FFA levels were significantly increased in the high-fat diet (HF) group compared to the control group (p < 0.05). During clamp steady-state, the FFA levels were reduced by ∼25% in the control and ∼48% in the HF groups. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the plasma FFA level in the lipid-infused group (from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 2.87 ± 0.18 mmol/l). The glucose infusion rates (GIRs) in the HF and lipid groups were obviously lower than in the control group (p < 0.01). Moreover, GIR was lower in the lipid group compared with the HF group (p < 0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (GRd) was significantly lower in the lipid group compared with the control group. Hepatic glucose production in the control group was suppressed by ∼15% compared with the HF and lipid groups where it was suppressed by only ∼72 and ∼91%, respectively. The resistin level of muscle tissues in the lipid group was significantly higher compared with the control and HF groups (both p < 0.05). After the insulin clamp, the circulating adiponectin level was significantly decreased in the lipid group compared with the control and HF groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Lipid infusion, which was more effective than a high-fat diet, can induce peripheral and hepatic insulin resistance in rats. Insulin-induced resistance might be associated with elevated resistin and decreased adiponectin.
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