Adaptive Two-Stage Analysis of Genetic Association in Case-Control DesignsZheng G.a · Song K.b · Elston R.C.c
aOffice of Biostatistics Research, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Md., bGlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, Pa., and cDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
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We study a two-stage analysis of genetic association for case-control studies. In the first stage, we compare Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium coefficients between cases and controls and, in the second stage, we apply the Cochran- Armitage trend test. The two analyses are statistically independent when Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium holds in the population, so all the samples are used in both stages. The significance level in the first stage is adaptively determined based on its conditional power. Given the level in the first stage, the level for the second stage analysis is determined with the overall Type I error being asymptotically controlled. For finite sample sizes, a parametric bootstrap method is used to control the overall Type I error rate. This two-stage analysis is often more powerful than the Cochran-Armitage trend test alone for a large association study. The new approach is applied to SNPs from a real study.
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