Optimizing Bone Mass and Strength

The Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition during Growth

Editor(s): Daly R.M. (Melbourne, Vic.) 
Petit M.A. (Minneapolis, Minn.) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 51, No. , 2007
Section title: Paper
Daly R, Petit M (eds): Optimizing Bone Mass and Strength. The Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition during Growth. Med Sport Sci. Basel, Karger, 2007, vol 51, pp 64-80

Gene-Environment Interactions in the Skeletal Response to Nutrition and Exercise during Growth

Bonjour J. · Chevalley T. · Rizzoli R. · Ferrari S.
Service of Bone Diseases, WHO Collaborating Center for Osteoporosis Prevention, Department of Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


The amount of bone mineral mass acquired at the end of growth, the so-called ‘peak bone mass’, is considered to be a major risk factor for the occurrence of fragility fractures during adult life. Many interrelated factors can influence the accumulation of bone mass during growth, including genetics, sex, ethnicity, nutrition (e.g. calcium, vitamin D, protein), hormonal factors (e.g. sex steroids, insulin-like growth factor I), physical activity and exposure to various risk factors (e.g. alcohol, smoking, certain medications). Family and twin studies have estimated that up to 60-80% of the variance in peak bone mass is attributable to genetic factors. It can be predicted from epidemiological studies that a 10% increase in peak bone mass would reduce the risk of fragility fractures after the menopause by 50%. Intervention studies testing the effects of increasing either calcium intake or physical activity during growth provide evidence that modifying environmental factors can positively influence peak bone mass. Nevertheless, there is large interindividual variability in the response suggesting gene-environment interactions. A few studies have reported associations between some bone-related gene polymorphisms and the osteogenic response to loading or calcium supplementation. Identifying the functionally implicated genes interacting with mechanical loading and/or specific nutrients represents a formidable but hopefully not intractable challenge.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50