Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 79, Suppl. 1, 2007
Issue release date: August 2007
Urol Int 2007;79:37–46
(DOI:10.1159/000104440)

Prevention of Stone Disease

Porena M. · Guiggi P. · Micheli C.
Department of Urology and Andrology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

In recent years stone disease has become more widespread in developed countries. At present the prevalence is 5.2 and 15% of men and 6% of women are affected. The increase is linked to changes in lifestyle, eating patterns and obesity which has become very common. The ‘metabolic syndrome’ includes all the diseases, e.g. hypertension, lipid imbalances, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gout and cardiovascular disease, which are concomitant in the majority of stone formers. Dietary patterns, besides leading to stone formation, also determine stone chemistry. With a diet that is rich in oxalates, calcium oxalate will constitute 75% of stones, struvite 10–20%, uric acid 5–6% and cystine 1%. As approximately 50% of patients with stones suffer recurrences, metabolic and/or pharmacological prophylaxis is recommended.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Tiselius HG: Comprehensive metabolic evaluation of stone formers is cost effective; in Rodgers AL, Hibbert BE, Hess B, Khan SR, Preminger GM (eds): Urolithiasis 2000. Cape Town, University of Cape Town, 2000, pp 349–355.
  2. Stamatelou KK, Francis ME, Jones CA, Niberg LM, Curhan GC: Time trends in reported prevalence of kidney stones in the United States: 1976–1994. Kidney Int 2003;63:1817–1823.
  3. Hesse A, Brandle E, Wilbert D, Kohrmann KU, Alken P: Study on the prevalence and incidence of urolithiasis in Germany comparing the years 1979 vs. 2000. Eur Urol 2003;44:709–713.
  4. Amato M, Lusini M, Nelli F: Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis today. Urol Int 2004;72(suppl 1):1–5.
  5. Robertson WG, Hughes H: Epidemiology of urinary stone disease in Saudi Arabia. Urolithiasis 1994;54:453–455.
  6. Ramello A, Vitale C, Marangella M: Epidemiology of nephrolithiasis. J Nephrol 2000;13(suppl 3):S45–S50.

    External Resources

  7. Lewandowski S, Rodgers AL: Idiopathic calcium oxalate urolithiasis: risk factors and conservative treatment. Clin Chim Acta 2004;345:17–34.
  8. Pak CYC: Kidney stones. Lancet 1998;351:1797–1800.
  9. Martini LA, Wood RJ: Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev 2000;58:111–117.
  10. Ljunghall S: Renal stone disease. Studies of epidemiology and calcium metabolism. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1977;41:1–96.

    External Resources

  11. Johnson CM, Wilson DM, O’Fallon WM: Renal stone epidemiology: a 25-year study in Rochester, Minnesota. Kidney Int 1979;16:624–631.
  12. Ljunghall S, Danielson BG: A prospective study of renal stone recurrences. Br J Urol 1984;56:122–124.
  13. Robertson WR: The economics of urinary stone management; in Borghi L, Meschi T, Briganti A, Schianchi T, Novarini A (eds): Kidney Stones. 8th European Symposium on Urolithiasis. Cosenza, Editoriale Bios, 1999, pp 169–172.
  14. Pareek G, Steele TH, Nakadas Y: Urological intervention in patients with cystinuria is decreased with medical compliance. J Urol 2005;174:2250–2252.
  15. Strohmaier WL, Hormann M: Economic aspect of urolithiasis and metaphylaxis in Germany; in Rodgers AL, Hibbert BE, Hess B, Khan SR, Preminger GM (eds): Urolithiasis 2000. Cape Town, University of Cape Town, 2000, pp 406–409.
  16. Chandhoke PS: When is medical prophylaxis cost-effective for recurrent calcium stones? J Urol 2002;168:937–940.
  17. Abate N, Chandalia M, Cabo-Chan AV Jr, Moe OW, Sakhaee K: The metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: novel features of renal manifestation of insulin resistance. Kidney Int 2004;65:386–392.
  18. Strazzullo P, Barba G, Vuotto P, Farinaro E, Siani A, Nunziata V, Galletti F, Mancini M, Cappuccio FP: Past history of hypertension in men: a reappraisal based on the results of the Olivetti Prospective Heart Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001;16:2232–2235.
  19. Ramey SL, Franke WD, Shelley MC: Relationship among risk factors for nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular disease, and ethnicity: focus on a law enforcement cohort. AAOHN J 2004;52:116–121.

    External Resources

  20. Asplin JR, Coe FL: Hyperoxaluria in kidney stone formers treated with modern bariatric surgery. J Urol 2007;177:565–569.
  21. Strohmaier WL: Course of calcium stone disease without treatment. What can we expect? Eur Urol 2000;37:339–344.
  22. Straub M, Hautmann RE: Developments in stone prevention. Curr Opin Urol 2005;15:119–126.
  23. Park CYC: Kidney stones. Lancet 1998;130:1115–1118.
  24. Heilberg IP: Update on dietary recommendations and medical treatment of renal stone disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000;15:117–123.
  25. Tiselius HG: Comprehensive metabolic evaluation of stone formers is cost effective; in Rodgers AL, Hibbert BE, Hess B, Khan SR, Preminger GM (eds): Urolithiasis 2000. Cape Town, University of Cape Town, 2000, pp 349–355.
  26. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ: A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones. N Engl J Med 1993;328:833–838.
  27. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ: Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:497–504.
  28. Pearle MS: Prevention of nephrolithiasis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2001;10:203–209.
  29. Borghi L, Meschi T, Amato F, Briganti A, Novarini A, Giannini A: Urinary volume, water and recurrences in idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis: a 5-year randomized prospective study. J Urol 1996;155:839–843.
  30. Borghi L, Meschi T, Schianchi T, Briganti A, Guerra A, Allegri F, Novarini A: Urine volume: stone risk factor and preventive measure. Nephron 1999;81(suppl 1):31–37.
  31. Keler T, Hesse A: Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects. Br J Nutr 2000;84:865–871.

    External Resources

  32. Ackermann D, Baumann JM, Futterlieb A, Zingg EJ: Influence of calcium content in mineral water on chemistry and crystallization conditions in urine calcium stone formers. Eur Urol 1988;14:305–308.
  33. Curhan GC, Willet WC, Rimm EB, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ: Prospective study of beverage use and the risk of kidney stones. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:240–247.
  34. Curhan GC, Willet WC, Speizer FE, Stampfer MJ: Beverage use and risk for kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:534–540.
  35. Siener R, Glatz S, Nicolay C, Hesse A: The role of overweight and obesity in calcium oxalate stone formation. Obes Res 2004;12:106–113.
  36. Ekeruo WO, Tan YH, Young MD, Daham P, Maloney ME, Mathias BJ, Albala DM, Preminger GM: Metabolic risk factors and the impact of medical therapy on the management of nephrolithiasis in obese patients. J Urol 2004;172:159–163.
  37. Meschi T, Schianchi T, Ridolo E, Adorni G, Allegri F, Guerra A, Novarini A, Borghi L: Body weight, diet and water intake in preventing stone disease. Urol Int 2004;72 (S1):29–33.
  38. Massey LK: Dietary influences on urinary oxalate and risk of kidney stones. Front Biosci 2003;8:584–594.

    External Resources

  39. Tiselius HG, Ackermann D, Hess B, Boevè E: Stone disease: diagnosis and medical management. Eur Urol 2002;41:41–45.

    External Resources

  40. Kwak C, Kim HK, Kim EC, Choi MS, Kim HH: Urinary oxalate levels and the enteric bacterium Oxalobacter formigenes in patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Eur Urol 2003;44:475–481.
  41. Siener R, Ebert D, Hesse A: Urinary oxalate excretion in female calcium oxalate stone formers with and without a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. Urol Res 2001;29:245–248.
  42. Hoppe B, von Unruh G, Laube N, Hesse A, Sidhu H: Oxalate degrading bacteria: new treatment option for patients with primary and secondary hyperoxaluria? Urol Res 2005;33:372–275.
  43. Holmes RP, Goodman HO, Assimos DG: Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion. Kidney Int 2001;59:270–276.
  44. Hess B, Jost C, Zipperle L, Takkinen R, Jaeger P: High-oxalate intake abolishes hyperoxaluria and reduces urinary cristallization during a 20-fold normal oxalate load in humans. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:2241–2247.
  45. Siener R, Glatz S, Nicolay C, Hesse A: Prospective study on the efficacy of selective treatment and risk for relapse in recurrent calcium oxalate stone patients. Eur Urol 2003;44:467–474.
  46. Ettinger B, Pak CY, Citron JT, Thomas C, Adams-Huet B, Vangessel A: Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1997;158:2069–2073.
  47. Bihl G, Meyers A: Recurrent renal stone disease-advances in pathogenesis and clinical management. Lancet 2001;358:651–656.
  48. Mattle D, Hess B: Preventive treatment of nephrolithiasis with alkali citrate – a critical review. Urol Res 2005;33:73–79.
  49. Barcelo P, Wuhl O, Servitage E, Rousand A, Pak CYC: Randomized double-blind study of potassium citrate in idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1993;150:1761–1764.
  50. Rodman JS: Intermittent versus continuous alkaline therapy for uric acid stones and ureteral stones of uncertain composition. Urology 2002;60:378–382.
  51. Wabner CL, Pak CY: Effect of orange juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors. J Urol 1993;149:1405–1408.
  52. Kessler T, Hesse A: Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr 2000;84:865–871.
  53. Lieberman M, Costa G: Effects of calcium and magnesium on urinary oxalate excretion after oxalate loads. J Urol 2000;163:1565–1569.
  54. Kohri K, Ishikawa Y, Iguchi M, Kurita T, Okada Y, Yoshida O: Relationship between the incidence infection stones and the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water. Urol Res 1993;21:269–272.
  55. Mitwalli A, Ayiomamitis A, Grass L, Oreopoulos DG: Control of hyperoxaluria with kidney stones. Int Urol Nephrol 1988;20:353–359.
  56. Cuhran GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE: Intake of vitamin B6 and C and the risk of kidney stones in women. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999;10:840–845.

    External Resources

  57. Edwards P, Nemat S, Rose GA: Effects of oral pyridoxine upon plasma and 24-hour urinary oxalate levels in normal subjects and stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Urol Res 1990;18:296–393.

    External Resources

  58. Tiselius HG: Epidemiology and medical management of stone disease. BJU Int 2003;91:758–767.
  59. Buck AC, Davies RL, Harrison T: The protective role of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. J Urol 1991;146:188–194.
  60. Grasses F, Ramis M, Costa-Bauzà A: Effects of phytate and pyrophosphate on brushite and hydroxyapatite crystallization. Urol Res 2001;28:136–140.

    External Resources

  61. Barros ME, Schor N, Boim MA: Effects of an aqueous extract from Phillantus niruri on calcium oxalate crystallization in vitro. Urol Res 2003;30:374–379.
  62. Freitas AM, Schor N, Boim MA: The effect of Phillantus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation. BJU Int 2002;89:829–834.
  63. Ruml LA, Pak CY: Effect of potassium magnesium citrate on thiazide-induced hypokalemia and magnesium loss. Am J Kidney Dis 1999;34:107–113.
  64. Pearle MS, Roehrborn GC, Pak CY: Meta-analysis of randomized trials for medical prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Endourol 1999;13:679–685.
  65. Ettinger B, Tang A, Citron JT, Livermore B, Williams T: Randomized trial of allopurinol in the prevention of calcium oxalate calculi. N Engl J Med 1986;315:1386–1389.
  66. Wilson DM: Clinical and laboratory evaluation of renal stone patients. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1990;19:773–803.
  67. Hess B: Prophylaxis of uric acid and cystine stones. Urol Res 1990;18(suppl 1):S41–S44.
  68. Sakhee K, Poindexter JR, Pak CYC: The spectrum of metabolic abnormalities in patients with cystine nephrolithiasis. J Urol 1989;141:819–821.

    External Resources

  69. Sloand JA, Izzo JL: Captopril reduces urinary cystine excretion in cystinuria. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1409–1412.
  70. Biyani CS, Cartledge JJ: Cystinuria – diagnosis and management. EAU-EBU Update Series 2006;4:175–183.

    External Resources



Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50