Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 41, No. 6, 2007
Issue release date: November 2007
Section title: Original Paper
Free Access
Caries Res 2007;41:445–450

Salivary Glucosyltransferase B as a Possible Marker for Caries Activity

Vacca Smith A.M.a · Scott-Anne K.M.b · Whelehan M.T.c · Berkowitz R.J.c · Feng C.d · Bowen W.H.b
aDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology, bCenter for Oral Biology, cEastman Department of Dentistry and dDepartment of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., USA
email Corresponding Author

William H. Bowen, BDS, PhD

University of Rochester, Center for Oral Biology

601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 611

Rochester, NY 14642 (USA)

Tel. +1 585 275 0772, Fax +1 585 276 0190, E-Mail William_Bowen@urmc.rochester.edu


  1. Alaluusua S, Renkonen OV: Streptococcus mutans establishment and dental caries in children from 2 to 4 years old. Scand J Dent Res 1983;91:453–457.
  2. Beighton D: The value of salivary bacterial counts in the prediction of caries activity; in Johnson NW (ed): Risk Markers for Oral Diseases. Dental Caries. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp 313–326.
  3. Berkowitz R: Etiology of nursing caries: a microbiologic perspective. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:51–54.
  4. Bowden GH: Does assessment of microbial composition of plaque/saliva allow for diagnosis of disease activity of individuals? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;25:76–81.
  5. Clark BR, Engval E: Enzyme Immunoassay. Boca Raton, CRC Press Inc, 1980.
  6. Duchin S, van Houte J: Relationship of Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli to incipient smooth surface dental caries in man. Arch Oral Biol 1978;23:779.
  7. Eisenberg AD, Mundorff SA, Featherstone JD, Leverett DH, Adair SM, Billings RJ, Proskin HM: Associations of microbiological factors and plaque index with caries prevalence and water fluoridation status. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1991;6:139–145.
  8. Gold OG, Jordan HV, van Houte J: A selective medium for Streptococcus mutans. Arch Oral Biol 1973;18:1357–1364.
  9. Grainger RM, Jarrett M, Honey SL: Swab test for dental caries activity: an epidemiological study. J Can Dent Assoc 1965:31:515.
  10. Grainger RM, Nikiforuk G: Determination of relative caries experience. J Can Dent Assoc 1960;26:531.
  11. Grindefjord M, Dahllof G, Nilsson B, Modeer T: Prediction of dental caries development in 1-year-old children. Caries Res 1995;29:343–348.
  12. Hamada S, Slade HD: Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev 1980;44:331–384.
  13. Hanada N, Kuramitsu HK: Isolation and characterization of the gtfC gene, coding for synthesis of both soluble and insoluble glucans. Infect Immun 1988;56:1999–2005.
  14. Hanada N, Kuramitsu HK: Isolation and characterization of the Streptococcus mutans gtfD gene, coding for primer-dependent soluble glucan synthesis. Infect Immun 1989;57:2079–2085.
  15. Hausen H: Caries prediction – state of the art. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997;25:87–96.
  16. Holbrook WP, de Soet JJ, de Graaff J: Prediction of dental caries in pre-school children. Caries Res 1993;27:424–430.
  17. Ivanyi J, Davies P: Monoclonal antibodies against human growth hormone. Mol Immunol 1980;17:287–290.
  18. Köhler B, Andreèn I, Jonsson B: The earlier the colonization by mutans streptococci, the higher the caries prevalence at 4 years of age. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1988;3:14–17.
  19. Köhler B, Bratthall D: Practical method to facilitate estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva. J Clin Microbiol 1979;9:584–588.
  20. Leverett DH, Featherstone JD, Proskin HM, Adair SM, Eisenberg AD, Mundorff-Shrestha SA, Shields CP, Shaffer CL, Billings RJ: Caries risk assessment by a cross-sectional discrimination model. J Dent Res 1993a;72:529–537.
  21. Leverett DH, Proskin HM, Featherstone JD, Adair SM, Eisenberg AD, Mundorff-Shrestha SA, Shields CP, Shaffer CL, Billings RJ: Caries risk assessment in a longitudinal discrimination study. J Dent Res 1993b;72:538–543.
  22. Loesche WJ: Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev 1986;50:353–380.
  23. Mattos-Graner RO, Smith DJ, King WF, Mayer MPA: Water-insoluble glucan synthesis by mutans streptococcal strains correlates with caries incidence in 12- to 30-month-old children. J Dent Res 2000;79:1371–1377.
  24. Messer LB: Assessing caries risk in children. Aust Dent J 2000;45:6–10.
    External Resources
  25. Milnes AR: Description and epidemiology of nursing caries. J Public Health Dent 1996;56:38–50.
  26. Moore S, Stein WH: Photometric ninhydrin method for use in the chromatography of amino acids. Biol Chem 1948;176:367–368.
  27. Petti S, Hausen HW: Caries prediction by multiple salivary mutans streptococcal counts in caries-free children with different levels of fluoride exposure, oral hygiene and sucrose intake. Caries Res 2000;34:380–387.
  28. Powell LV: Caries prediction: a review of the literature. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1998;26:361–371.
  29. Radike AW: Criteria for diagnosing dental caries; in Proceedings of the Conference on Clinical Testing of Cariostatic Agents, 1968. Chicago, American Dental Association, 1972, pp 87–88.
  30. Rogosa M, Mitchell JA, Wiseman RE: Selective medium for the isolation and enumeration of oral lactobacilli. J Dent Res 1951;30:682–684.
  31. Schilling KM, Blitzer MH, Bowen WH: Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glucans formed in situ in salivary pellicle. J Dent Res 1989;68(spec iss):678–680.
  32. Schilling KM, Bowen WH: The activity of glucosyltransferases adsorbed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res 1988;67:2–8.
  33. Schilling KM, Bowen WH: Glucan synthesized in situ in experimental pellicle functions as specific binding sites for Streptococcus mutans. Infect Immun 1992;60:284–295.
  34. Snyder ML: Laboratory methods in the clinical evaluation of caries activity. J Am Dent Assoc 1951;41:400.
  35. Stamm JW, Disney JA, Beck JD, Weintraub JA, Stewart PW: The University of North Carolina caries risk assessment study: final results and some alternative modeling approaches; in Bowen WH, Tabak LA (eds): Cariology for the Nineties. Rochester, University of Rochester Press, 1993, pp 209–234.
  36. Tinanoff N: Introduction to the early childhood caries conference: initial description and current understanding. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1998;23(suppl 1):5–7.
  37. Vacca-Smith AM, Bowen WH: In situ studies of pellicle formation on hydroxyapatite discs. Arch Oral Biol 2000;45:277–291.
  38. Vacca-Smith AM, Venkitaraman AR, Quivey RG, Bowen WH: Interactions of streptococcal glucosyltransferases with alpha-amylase and starch on the surface of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. Arch Oral Biol 1996a;30:291–298.
    External Resources
  39. Vacca-Smith AM, Venkitaraman AR, Schilling KM, Bowen WH: Characterization of glucosyltransferase of human saliva adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite surfaces. Caries Res 1996b;30:354–360.
  40. Van Palenstein Helderman WH, Mikx FH, Van’t Hof MA, Truin G, Kalsbeek H: The value of salivary bacterial counts as a supplement to past caries experience as caries predictor in children. Eur J Oral Sci 2001;109:312–315.
  41. Venkitaraman AR, Vacca-Smith AM, Kopec LK, Bowen WH: Characterization of glucosyltransferaseB, gtfC, and gtfD in solution and on the surface of hydroxyapatite. J Dent Res 1995;74:1695–1701.
  42. Voller A, Bidwell DE, Bartlett A: The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A Guide with Abstracts of Microplate Applications. Alexandria, Dynatech Laboratories Inc, 1979.
  43. Wood JM, Critchley P: The extracellular polysaccharide produced from sucrose by cariogenic streptococcus. Arch Oral Biol 1966;11:1039–1042.
  44. Wunder D, Bowen WH: Effects of antibodies to glucosyltransferase on soluble and insolubilized enzymes. Oral Dis 2000;6:289–296.
  45. Yamashita Y, Bowen WH, Burne RA, Kuramitsu HK: Role of the Streptococcus mutans gtf genes in caries induction on the specific-pathogen-free rat model. Infect Immun 1993;61:3811–3817.