DNA profiling by arrayCGH in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromesSuela J. · Alvarez S. · Cigudosa J.C.
Molecular Cytogenetics Group, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas (CNIO), Madrid (Spain)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent two distinct but related myeloid haematological neoplasms. At diagnosis, a substantial proportion of cases show cytogenetic and molecular genetic markers whose range of specificity is highly variable. Most specific reciprocal translocations, as t(8;21)(q21;q21) or t(15;17)(q22;q21), have been extensively studied and are currently introduced in clinical diagnosis. Two other major groups remain to be better characterized at the genetic and genomic level: cases with normal karyotype and cases with complex aberrations. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) performed on chromosomes was the first approach taken and nearly 300 cases studied by this technique have already been reported. Array based CGH has also been applied to a smaller number of cases. Both types of genomic studies have confirmed that recurrent genomic losses and gains can almost exclusively be found in cases with complex karyotype. In most cases with normal karyotype (as well as in others with single chromosome aberrations as trisomy 8), arrayCGH has been able to unveil small DNA copy number changes whose recurrence is very low. Recently, single- nucleotide-polymorphism based arrays have been used in AML showing that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) is a common feature in normal karyotype leukemia.
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