Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 28, No. 4, 2007
Issue release date: October 2007
Neuroepidemiology 2007;28:224–234

Prevalence of Dementia Subtypes in El Prat de Llobregat, Catalonia, Spain: The PRATICON Study

Gascón-Bayarri J. · Reñé R. · Del Barrio J.L. · De Pedro-Cuesta J. · Ramón J.M. · Manubens J.M. · Sánchez C. · Hernández M. · Estela J. · Juncadella M. · Rubio F.R.
aDementia Unit, Department of Neurology and bDepartment of Preventive Medicine, Bellvitge University Hospital, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, cNational Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Public Health, Madrid, dDepartment of Neurology, Virgen del Camino Hospital, Pamplona, Spain

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Background: Studies on dementia subtypes show a wide variation in the prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) worldwide. However, studies reporting on Lewy body dementia (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are sparse. Aims: To describe the prevalence ofdementia and subtypes. Method: A 34% sample of 5,150 subjects aged 70 years and over in El Prat de Llobregat (Barcelona) were screened by the Mini-Mental State Examination. When scoring <24, participants were assessed to establish a diagnosis. Results: There were 165 subjects diagnosed with dementia (prevalence of 9.4%). Subtypes of dementia were: AD 69.1%, VD 12.7%, LBD 9.1%, FTD 3% and secondary dementia 1.8%. Prevalences were: AD 6.5%, VD 1.2%, LBD 0.9% and FTD 0.3%. Conclusions: AD and VD were the most common type of dementia. Prevalence of dementia, AD and FTD were similar to those reported, while prevalence of VD and LBD were lower.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Manubens JM, Martínez-Lage JM, Lacruz F, et al: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease and other dementing disorders in Pamplona, Spain. Neuroepidemiology 1995;14:155–164.
  2. Vilalta-Franch J, López-Pousa S, Llinás-Reglá J: Prevalencia de demencias en una zona rural. Estudio de Girona. Rev Neurol 2000;30:1026–1032.
  3. Lobo A, Saz P, Marcos G, Día JL, de la Cámara C: The prevalence of dementia and depression in the elderly community in a southern European population. The Zaragoza Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52:497–506.
  4. Zunzunegui MV, del Ser T, Rodríguez A, García MJ, Domingo J, Otero A: Demencia no detectada y utilización de los servicios sanitarios: implicaciones para la atención primaria. Aten Primaria 2003;31:581–586.
  5. García FJ, Sánchez MA, Pérez A, et al: Prevalencia de demencia y de sus subtipos principales en sujetos mayores de 65 años: efecto de la educación y ocupación. Estudio Toledo. Med Clin (Barc) 2001;116:401–407.
  6. Pi J, Olivé JM, Roca J, Masana Ll: Prevalence of dementia in a semi-rural population of Catalunya, Spain. Neuroepidemiology 1996;15:33–41.
  7. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994, pp 133–155.
  8. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  9. Román GC, Tatemichi TK, Erkinjuntti T, et al: Vascular dementia: diagnostic criteria for research studies. Report of the NINDS-AIREN international workshop. Neurology 1993;43:250–260.
  10. McKeith IG, Galasko D, Kosaka K, et al: Consensus guidelines for the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB): Report of the consortium on DLB international workshop. Neurology 1996;47:1113–1124.
  11. Neary D, Snowden JS, Gustafson L, et al: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 1998;51:1546–1554.
  12. Del Barrio JL, de Pedro-Cuesta J, Boix R, et al: Dementia, stroke and Parkinson’s disease in Spanish populations: a review of door-to-door prevalence surveys. Neuroepidemiology 2005;24:179–188.
  13. Hofman A, Rocca WA, Brayne C, et al: The prevalence of dementia in Europe: a collaborative study of 1980–1990 findings. Int J Epidemiol 1991;20:736–748.
  14. Rocca WA, Hofman A, Brayne C, et al: Frequency and distribution of Alzheimer’s disease in Europe: a collaborative study of 1980–1990 prevalence findings. Ann Neurol 1991;30:381–390.
  15. Lobo A, Launer LJ, Fratiglioni L, et al: Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: a collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurology 2000;54:S4–S9.
  16. Yamada T, Hattori H, Miura A, Tanabe M, Yamori Y: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies in a Japanese population. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;55:21–25.
  17. Rahkonen T, Eloniemi-Sulkava U, Rissanen S, Vatanen A, Viramo P, Sulkava R: Dementia with Lewy bodies according to the consensus criteria in a general population aged 75 years or older. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:720–724.
  18. Del Ser T, Pondal M, Rodríguez E, Castro MD, Sánchez-Sánchez F, Muñoz D: Prevalence of probable dementia with Lewy bodies in a Spanish census-based elderly sample. Neurology 2004;62(suppl 5):A209.P03.047.
  19. Gislason TB, Sjögren M, Larsson L, Skoog I: The prevalence of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and the frontal lobe syndrome in a population based sample of 85 years olds. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:867–871.
  20. Victoroff J, Mack WJ, Lyness SA, Chui HC: Multicenter clinicopathological correlation in dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152:1476–1484.
  21. Lim A, Tsuang D, Kukull W, et al: Clinico-neuropathological correlation of Alzheimer’s disease in a community-based case series. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:564–569.
  22. Stevens T, Livingston G, Kitchen G, Manela M, Walker Z, Katona C: Islington study of dementia subtypes in the community. Br J Psychiatry 2002;180:270–276.
  23. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-Mental State’. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  24. Instituto Nacional de Estadística de España: Clasificación Nacional de ocupaciones (CON-94). Real decreto 917/1994 de 6 de mayo; in Ministerio de la Presidencia, ed. Boletín Oficial del Estado. Madrid, Ministerio de la Presidencia, 1994, pp 16626–16632.
  25. Guigoz Y, Vellas B, Garry PJ: Mini Nutritional Assessment: a practical assessment tool for grading the nutritional state of elderly patients. Facts Res Gerontol 1994;S2:15–59.
  26. Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, et al: Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res 1983;17:37–49.
  27. Blessed G, Tomlinson BE, Roth M: The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 1968;114:797–811.
  28. Hachinski VC, Iliff LD, Zilhka E, et al: Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Arch Neurol 1975;32:632–637.
  29. Linn MW, Linn BS: The rapid disability rating scale-2. J Am Geriatr Soc 1982;30:378–382.
  30. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44:2308–2314.
  31. Lawton MP, Brody EM: Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 1969;9:179–186.
  32. Welsh KA, Butters N, Hughes JP, Mohs RC, Heyman A: Detection and staging of dementia in Alzheimer’s disease: use of the neuropsychological measures developed for the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease. Arch Neurol 1992;49:448–452.
  33. Bermejo F, Alom J, Peña-Casanova J, et al: Registro Multicéntrico de casos incidentes de demencia. Un estudio del grupo de demencias de la Sociedad Española de Neurología. Neurología 1994;9:401–406.
  34. Peña-Casanova J: Programa integrado de exploración neuropsicológica: ‘Test Barcelona’. Manual, Láminas y Protocolo. Barcelona, Masson, 1990.
  35. Wechsler A: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). New York, The Psychological Corporation, 1981.
  36. Hughes CP, Berg L, Danzinger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL: A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:566–572.
  37. Breteler MMB, Van den Ouweland FA, Grobbee DE, Hofman A: A community-based study of dementia: the Rotterdam Elderly Study. Neuroepidemiology 1992;11(suppl 1):23–28.

    External Resources

  38. Maggi S, Zucchetto M, Grigoletto F, et al: The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA): design and methods. Aging Clin Exp Res 1994;6:464–473.
  39. Saunders PA, Copeland JRM, Dewey ME, et al: The prevalence of dementia, depression and neurosis in later life: the Liverpool MRC-ALPHA Study. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:838–847.
  40. Ott A, Breteler MMB, Van Harskamp F, et al: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia: association with education. The Rotterdam study. BMJ 1995;310:970–973.
  41. Zhang M, Katzman R, Salmon D, et al: The prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in Shanghai, China: impact of age, gender and education. Ann Neurol 1990;27:428–437.
  42. Katzman R: Education and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1993;43:13–20.
  43. Bonaiuto S, Rocca WA, Lippi A, et al: Education and occupation as risk factors for dementia: a population-based case-control study. Neuroepidemiology 1995;14:101–109.
  44. Fratiglioni L, Jorm AF, Grut M, et al: Predicting dementia from the Mini-Mental State Examination in an elderly population: the role of education. J Clin Epidemiol 1993;46:281–287.
  45. Schmand B, Smit J, Lindeboom J, et al: Low education is a genuine risk factor for accelerated memory decline and dementia. J Clin Epidemiol 1997;9:1025–1033.
  46. Liu HC, Chou P, Lin KN, et al: Assessing cognitive abilities and dementia in a predominantly illiterate population of older individuals in Kinmen. Psychol Med 1994;24:763–770.
  47. Blesa R, Pujol M, Aguilar M, et al: Clinical validity of the ‘mini-mental state’ for Spanish speaking communities. Neuropsychologia 2001;39:1150–1157.
  48. Knopman DS, Parisi JE, Salviati A, et al: Neuropathology of cognitively normal elderly. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2003;62:1087–1095.
  49. Fu C, Chute DJ, Farag ES, Garakian J, Cummings JL, Vinters HV: Comorbidity in dementia. An autopsy study. Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004;128:32–38.
  50. Rothman KJ, Greenland S: Modern Epidemiology, ed 2. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven, 1998, pp 11–16, 56–59.
  51. Riedel-Heller SG, Busse A, Aurich C, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC: Prevalence of dementia according to DSM-III-R and ICD-10. Br J Psychiatry 2001;179:250–254.
  52. Wernicke TF, Reischies FM: Prevalence of dementia in old age: clinical diagnoses in subjects aged 95 years and older. Neurology 1994;44:250–253.
  53. Ritchie K, Kildea D: Is senile dementia ‘age-related’ or ‘ageing-related’? evidence from meta-analysis of dementia prevalence in the oldest old. Lancet 1995;346:931–934.
  54. Polvikoski T, Sulkava R, Myllykangas L, et al: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in very elderly people. A prospective neuropathological study. Neurology 2001;56:1690–1696.
  55. Ebly EM, Parhad IM, Hogan DB, Fung TS: Prevalence and types of dementia in the very old: results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Neurology 1994;44:1593–1600.
  56. Von Strauss E, Viitanen M, De Ronchi D, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L: Aging and the occurrence of dementia. Findings from a population-based cohort with a large sample of nonagerians. Arch Neurol 1999;56:587–592.
  57. Blansjaar BA, Thomassen R, Van Schaick HW: Prevalence of dementia in centenarians. Int J Geriat Psychiatry 2000;15:219–225.
  58. Jorm AF, Korten AE, Henderson AS: The prevalence of dementia: a quantitative integration of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1987;76:465–479.
  59. Rocca WA, Bonaiuto S, Lippi A, Luciani P, Turtu F, Cavarzeran F, et al: Prevalence of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease and other dementing disorders. A door-to-door survey in Appignano, Macerata Province, Italy. Neurology 1990;40:626–631.
  60. Pfeffer RI, Afifi AA, Chance JM: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease in a retirement community. Am J Epidemiol 1987;125:420–436.
  61. Fratiglioni L, Grut M, Forsell Y, et al: Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias in an elderly urban population: relationship with age, sex and education. Neurology 1991;41:1886–1892.
  62. Kokmen E, Beard CM, Offord KP, Kurland LT: Prevalence of medically diagnosed dementia in a defined United States population: Rochester, Minnesota, January 1, 1975. Neurology 1989;39:773–776.
  63. O’Connor DW, Pollit PA, Hyde JB, et al: The prevalence of dementia as measured by the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the elderly examination. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1989;79:190–198.
  64. Roelands M, Wostyn P, Dom H, Baro F: The prevalence of dementia in Belgium: a population-based door-to-door survey in a rural community. Neuroepidemiology 1994;13:155–161.
  65. Prencipe M, Casini AR, Ferretti C, Lattanzio MT, Fiorelli M, Culasso F: Prevalence of dementia in an elderly rural population: effects of age, sex, and education. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996;60:628–633.
  66. Roman GC: The epidemiology of vascular dementia; in Hartmann A, Kuchinsky W, Hoyer S (eds): Cerebral Ischemia and Dementia. Berlin, Springer, 1991, pp 9–15.
  67. Suzuki K, Kutsuzawa T, Nakajinia K, Hatano S: Epidemiology of vascular dementia and stroke in Akita, Japan; in Hartmann A, Kuchinsky W, Hoyer S (eds): Cerebral Ischemia and Dementia. Berlin, Springer, 1991, pp 16–24.
  68. Rocca WA, Knopman DS: Prevalence and incidence patterns of vascular dementia; in Bowler JV, Hachinski V (eds): Vascular Cognitive Impairment. Preventable Dementia. New York, Oxford University Press, 2003, pp 21–32.
  69. Ratnavalli E, Brayne C, Dawson K, Hodges JR: The prevalence of frontotemporal dementia. Neurology 2002;58:1615–1621.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50