Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 59, No. 1-2, 2008
Issue release date: December 2007
Section title: Original Paper
Eur Neurol 2008;59:31–37
(DOI:10.1159/000109258)

Positron Emission Tomography Facilitates Diagnosis of Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

McMurtray A.M. · Licht E. · Yeo T. · Krisztal E. · Saul R.E. · Mendez M.F.
aDepartment of Neurology, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), and bVA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, Calif., USA

Do you have an account?

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Register and profit from personalized services (MyKarger) Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information









I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger (new!)
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
  • Reduced rates with a PPV account
read more

Direct: USD 38.00
Account: USD 26.50

Select

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restriction apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00

Select

Subscribe

  • Automatic perpetual access to all articles of the subscribed year(s)
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 12/15/2006
Accepted: 4/4/2007
Published online: 10/4/2007

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0014-3022 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9913 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ENE

Abstract

Background: Clinical positron emission tomography (PET) may help in the evaluation of presenile patients with memory complaints for the presence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods: Clinical PET scans from 27 patients with clinically probable AD and early ages of onset (<65 years) were compared to PET scans from 27 age-matched controls presenting with memory complaints, but without dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Results: Compared to controls, the AD patients had significant frontal, temporal and parietal hypometabolism bilaterally, and AD diagnosis correlated with left temporal and right temporoparietal hypometabolism. The sensitivity of temporoparietal hypometabolism for AD was 92.6%, the specificity 85.2%. Conclusion: Clinical PET imaging helps distinguish early-onset AD from patients with memory complaints not meeting criteria for dementia or mild cognitive impairment.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 12/15/2006
Accepted: 4/4/2007
Published online: 10/4/2007

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0014-3022 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9913 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ENE


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Mendez MF, Cummings JL: Dementia: A Clinical Approach, ed 3. Philadelphia, Elsevier Science Publishing, 2003.
  2. Silverman DH, Small GW, Chang CY, Lu CS, Kung De Aburto MA, Chen W, Czernin J, Rapoport SI, Pietrini P, Alexander GE, Schapiro MB, Jaqust WJ, Hoffman JM, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Alavi A, Clark CM, Salmon E, de Leon MJ, Mielke R, Cummings JL, Kowell AP, Gambhir SS, Hoh CK, Phelps ME: Positron emission tomography in the evaluation of dementia: regional brain metabolism and long-term outcome. JAMA 2001;286:2120–2127.
  3. Silverman D, Truong C, Kim S, Chang CY, Chen W, Kowell AP, Cummings JL, Czernin J, Small GW, Phelps ME: Prognostic value of regional cerebral metabolism in patients undergoing dementia evaluation: comparison to a quantifying parameter of subsequent cognitive performance and to prognostic assessment without PET. Mol Genet Metab 2003;80:350–355.
  4. Minoshima S, Giordani B, Berent S, Frey KA, Foster NL, Kuhl DE: Metabolic reduction in the posterior cingulated cortex in very early Alzheimer’s disease. Ann Neurol 1997;42:85–94.
  5. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-mental state’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  6. Morris JC, Heyman A, Mohs RC, Hughes JP, van Belle G, Fillenbaum G, Mellits ED, Clark C: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD). Part 1. Clinical and neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1989;9:1159–1165.
  7. Morris JC: The clinical dementia rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;43:2412–2414.
  8. McKhann G, Drachman DD, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  9. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4 (text rev). Washington, American Psychiatric Association Press, 2000.
  10. Winblad B, Palmer K, Kivipelto M, Jelic V, Fratiglioni L, Wahlund LO, Nordberg A, Backman L, Albert M, Almkvist O, Arai H, Basun H, Blennow K, de Leon M, DeCarli C, Erkinjuntti T, Giacobini E, Graff C, Hardy J, Jack C, Jorm A, Ritchie K, van Duijn C, Vis-ser P, Petersen RC: Mild cognitive impairment – beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. J Intern Med 2004;256:240–246.
  11. Devous MD Sr: Functional brain imaging in the dementias: role in early detection, differential diagnosis, and longitudinal studies. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002;29:1685–1696.
  12. Zakzanis KK, Graham SJ, Campbell Z: A meta-analysis of structural and functional brain imaging in dementia of the Alzhei-mer’s type: a neuroimaging profile. Neuropsychol Rev 2003;13:1–18.
  13. Azari NP, Pettigrew KD, Schapiro MB, Haxby JV, Grady CL, Pietrini P, Salerno P, Salerno JA, Heston LL, Rapoport SI, Horwitz B: Early detection of Alzheimer’s disease: a statistical approach using positron emission tomographic data. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993;13:438–447.
  14. Haxby JV, Grady CL, Koss E, Horwitz B, Heston L, Schapiro M, Friedland RP, Rapoport SI: Longitudinal study of cerebral metabolic asymmetries and associated neuropsychological patterns in early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Arch Neurol 1990;47:753–760.
  15. Zamrini E, De Santi S, Tolar M: Imaging is superior to cognitive testing for early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiol Aging 2004;25:685–691.
  16. Silverman DH, Gambhir SS, Huang HW, Schwimmer J, Kim S, Small GW, Chodosh J, Czernin J, Phelps ME: Evaluating early dementia with and without assessment of regional cerebral metabolism by PET: a comparison of predicted costs and benefits. J Nucl Med 2002;43:253–266.
  17. Chetelat G, Desgranges B, de la Sayette V, Viader F, Eustache F, Baron JC: Mild cognitive impairment: can FDG-PET predict who is to rapidly convert to Alzheimer’s disease? Neurology 2003;60:1374–1377.
  18. Arnaiz E, Jelic V, Almkvist O, Wahlund LO, Winblad B, Valind S, Nordberg A: Impaired cerebral glucose metabolism and cognitive functioning predict deterioration in mild cognitive impairment. Neuroreport 2001;12:851–855.
  19. Mosconi L, Perani D, Sorbi S, Herholz K, Nacmias B, Holthoff V, Salmon E, Baron JC, De Cristofaro MT, Padovani A, Borroni B, Franceschi M, Bracco L, Pupi A: MCI conversion to dementia and the APOE genotype: a prediction study with FDG-PET. Neurology 2004;63:2332–2340.
  20. Panegyres PK, Davies SR, Connor CF: Early-onset dementia. Med J Aust 2000;173:279–280.
  21. Harvey RJ, Roques P, Fox NC, Rossor MN: Non-Alzheimer dementias in young patients. Br J Psychiatry 1996;168:384–385.
  22. Harvery RJ, Skelton-Robinson M, Rossor MN: The prevalence and causes of dementia in people under the age of 65 years. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1206–1209.
  23. Fujihara S, Brucki SM, Rocha MS, Carvalho AA, Piccolo AC: Prevalence of presenile dementia in a tertiary outpatient clinic. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2004;62:592–595.
  24. McMurtray AM, Clark DG, Christine D, Mendez MF: Early-onset dementia: frequency and causes compared to late-onset dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2006;21:59–64.
  25. Small GW, Kuhl DE, Riege WH, Fujikawa DG, Ashford JW, Metter EJ, Mazziotta JC: Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alz-heimer’s disease: effect of gender and age at dementia onset. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1989;46:527–532.
  26. Koss E, Friedland RP, Ober BA, Jagust WJ: Differences in lateral hemispheric asymmetries of glucose utilization between early- and late-onset Alzheimer-type dementia. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:638–640.
  27. Kalpouzos G, Eustache F, de la Sayette V, Viader F, Chetelat G, Desgranges B: Working memory and FDG-PET dissociate early and late onset Alzheimer disease patients. J Neurol 2005;252:548–558.
  28. Kim EJ, Cho SS, Jeong Y, Park KC, Kang SJ, Kang E, Kim SE, Lee KH, Na DL: Glucose metabolism in early onset versus late onset Alzheimer’s disease: an SPM analysis of 120 patients. Brain 2005;128:1790–1801.
  29. Mosconi L, Sorbi S, de Leon MJ, Li Y, Nacmias B, Myoung PS, Tsui W, Ginestroni A, Bessi V, Fayyazz M, Caffarra P, Pupi A: Hypometabolism exceeds atrophy in presymptomatic early-onset familial Alzheimer’s Disease. J Nucl Med 2006;47:1778–1786.
  30. Chui H, Zhang Q: Evaluation of dementia: a systematic study of the usefulness of the American Academy of Neurology’s practice parameters. Neurology 1997;49:925–935.
  31. Knopman DS, DeKosky ST, Cummings JL, Chui H, Corey-Bloom J, Relkin N, Small GW, Miller B, Stevens JC: Practice parameter: diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology 2001;56:1143–1153.