Table of Contents
To view the fulltext, log-in or choose pay-per-view options:
Get Access

Retrocollis: Classification, Clinical Phenotype, Treatment Outcomes and Risk Factors

Papapetropoulos S. · Baez S. · Zitser J. · Sengun C. · Singer C.
Division of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Fla., USA Eur Neurol 2008;59:71–75 (DOI:10.1159/000109265)


Retrocollis (RC) is a form of cervical dystonia (CD) that produces patterned, repetitive muscle contractions that result in neck extension. We performed a review of consecutive CD patients seen in our Division over a 15-year period. Out of 399 CD patients, 59 (14.8%) had features of RC. Pain was very frequently reported among patients (∼80%). RC was frequently associated with neuroleptic exposure (20.3%) and a history of head/neck trauma (23.7%). Of patients injected with botulinum toxin type A, 24.5% reported excellent, 32.1% moderate, 16.9% mild and 24.5% no response to injections. Oral antidystonic medications had limited contribution to symptom relief.


Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50