Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 29, No. 1-2, 2007
Issue release date: November 2007
Neuroepidemiology 2007;29:66–73
(DOI:10.1159/000109498)

Grip Strength and the Risk of Incident Alzheimer’s Disease

Buchman A.S. · Wilson R.S. · Boyle P.A. · Bienias J.L. · Bennett D.A.
aRush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Departments of bNeurological Sciences, and cBehavioral Sciences, dRush Institute for Healthy Aging and Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill., USA

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Decline in strength is common in older persons but little data are available about its association with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We studied the association of level of and rate of change in strength in 877 older persons without dementia at baseline and risk of AD. In a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex and education, each 1-lb decrease in grip strength at baseline was associated with about a 1.5% increase in the risk of AD (HR, 0.986; 95% CI, 0.973–0.998). These results persisted even after excluding persons who developed AD in the first 5 years of follow-up. In a subsequent model examining the association of the annual rate of change in grip strength with incident AD, each 1-lb annual decline in grip strength was associated with about a 9% increase in the risk of AD (HR, 0.915; 95% CI, 0.884–0.948). Results were similar after controlling for level and rate of change in body mass index, parkinsonian signs, physical and cognitive activity, depressive symptoms, vascular diseases and risk factors, social networks and early-life socioeconomic status. Declining strength in old age is associated with an increased risk of AD.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Scarmeas N, Albert M, Brandt J, Blacker D, Hadjigeorgiou G, Papadimitriou A, Dubois B, Sarazin M, Wegesin D, Marder K, Bell K, Honig L, Stern Y: Motor signs predict poor outcomes in Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2005;64:1696–1703.
  2. Goldman WP, Baty JD, Buckles VD, Sahrmann S, Morris JC: Motor dysfunction in mildly demented AD individuals without extrapyramidal signs. Neurology 1999;53:956–962.
  3. Louis ED, Tang MX, Mayeux R: Parkinsonian signs in older people in a community-based study: risk of incident dementia. Arch Neurol 2004;61:1273–1276.
  4. Waite LM, Grayson DA, Piguet O, Creasey H, Bennett HP, Broe GA: Gait slowing as a predictor of incident dementia: 6-year longitudinal data from the Sydney Older Persons Study. J Neurol Sci 2005;229–230:89–93.
  5. Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Parkinsonian-like signs and risk of incident Alzheimer disease in older persons. Arch Neurol 2003;60:539–544.
  6. Nourhashemi F, Andrieu S, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Reynish E, Albarede JL, Grandjean H, Vellas B: Is there a relationship between fat-free soft tissue mass and low cognitive function? Results from a study of 7,105 women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002;50:1796–1801.
  7. Fried LP, et al: Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:M146–M156.
  8. Buchman AS, Boyle PA, Wilson RS, Tang Y, Bennett DA: Frailty is associated with incident Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline in the elderly. Psychosom Med 2007;695:483–489.
  9. Wang L, Larson EB, Bowen JD, van Belle G: Performance-based physical function and future dementia in older people. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1115–1120.
  10. Milne JS, Maule MM: A longitudinal study of handgrip and dementia in older people. Age Ageing 1984;13:42–48.
  11. Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Schneider JA, et al: Natural history of mild cognitive impairment in older persons. Neurology 2002;59:198–205.
  12. Wilson RS, Beckett LA, Barnes LL, et al: Individual differences in rates of change in cognitive abilities in older persons. Psychol Aging 2002;17:179–193.
  13. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  14. Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Bennett DA: Gender differences in motor performance of older persons. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2005;5:59–65.
  15. Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Shah R, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Change in body mass index (BMI) and risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Neurology 2005;65:892–897.
  16. Schneider JA, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Cerebral infarctions and the likelihood of dementia from Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology 2004;62:1148–1155.
  17. Boyle PA, Wilson RS, Aggarwal NT, Arvanitakis Z, Kelly J, Bienias JL, Bennett DA: Parkinsonian signs in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 2005;65:1901– 1906.
  18. McPhillips JB, Pellettera KM, Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL, Criqui MH: Exercise patterns in a population of older adults. Am J Prev Med 1989;5:65–72.
  19. Wilson RS, Mendes De Leon CF, Barnes LL, Schneider JA, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. J Am Med Assoc 2002;287:742–748.
  20. Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Mendes de Leon CF, Aggarwal NT, Schneider JS, Bach J, Pilat J, Beckett LA, Arnold SE, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Depressive symptoms, cognitive decline, and risk of AD in older persons. Neurology 2002;59:364–370.
  21. Cornoni-Huntley J, Brock DB, Ostfeld A, Taylor JO, Wallace RB: Established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly resource data book. NIH Publication No. 86-2443. Washington, US Department of Health and Human Services, 1986.
  22. Barnes LL, Mendes de Leon CF, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Evans DA: Social resources and cognitive decline in a population of older African Americans and whites. Neurology 2004;63:2322–2326.
  23. Wilson RS, Scherr PA, Hoganson G, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Early life socioeconomic status and late life risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroepidemiology 2005;25:8–14.
  24. SAS/STAT® User’s Guide, version 8. Cary, SAS Institute, Inc, 2000.
  25. Richards M, Touchon J, Ledesert B, Ritchie K: Mild extrapyramidal signs and functional impairment in ageing. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17:150–153.
  26. Richards M, Stern Y, Mayeux R: Subtle extrapyramidal signs can predict the development of dementia in elderly individuals. Neurology 1993;43:2184–2188.
  27. Richards M, Stern Y, Mayeux R: Subtle extrapyramidal signs and incident dementia: follow-up analysis. Neurology 1995;45:1942.
  28. Waite LM, Broe GA, Grayson DA, Creasey H: Preclinical syndromes predict dementia: the Sydney Older Persons Study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 2001;71:296–302.
  29. Wilson RS, Schneider JA, Beckett LA, Evans DA, Bennett DA: Progression of gait disorder and risk of death in older persons. Neurology 2002;58:1815–1819.
  30. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Hall CB, Kuslansky G, Katz MJ, Buschke H: Abnormality of gait as a predictor of non-Alzheimer’s dementia. NEJM 2002;347:1761–1768.
  31. Marquis S, Moore MM, Howieson DB, Sexton G, Payami H, Kaye JA, et al: Independent predictors of cognitive decline in healthy elderly persons. Arch Neurol 2002;59:601–606.
  32. Newman AB, Fitzpatrick AL, Lopez O, Jackson S, Lyketsos C, Jagust W, Ives D, Dekosky ST, Kuller LH: Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease incidence in relationship to cardiovascular disease in the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:1101–1107.
  33. Rosano C, Brach J, Longstreth Jr WT, Newman AB: Quantitative measures of gait characteristics indicate prevalence of underlying subclinical structural brain abnormalities in high-functioning older adults. Neuroepidemiology 2006;26:52–60.
  34. Carey LM, Abbott DF, Egan GF, Bernhardt J, Donnan GA: Motor impairment and recovery in the upper limb after stroke: behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Stroke 2005;36:625–629.
  35. Strawbridge WJ, Shema SJ, Balfour JL, Higby HR, Kaplan GA: Antecedents of frailty over three decades in an older cohort. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1998;53:S9–S16.
  36. Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Studenski S, Fried LP, Cutler GB Jr, Walston JD: Interventions on Frailty Working Group. Designing randomized, controlled trials aimed at preventing or delaying functional decline and disability in frail, older persons: a consensus report. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004;52:625–634.
  37. Larson EB, Wang L, Bowen JD, McCormick WC, Teri L, Crane P, Kukull W: Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:73–81.
  38. Hikosaka O, Nakamura K, Sakai K, Nakahara H: Central mechanisms of motor skill learning. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2002;2:217–222.
  39. Lehericy S, Bardinet E, Tremblay L, Van de Moortele P-F, Pochon J-B, Dormont D, Kim D-S, Yelnik J, Ugurbil K: Motor control in basal ganglia circuits using fMRI and brain atlas approaches. Cereb Cortex 2006;16:149–161.
  40. Fogassi L, Luppino G: Motor functions of the parietal lobe. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2005;15:626–631.
  41. Bennett DA, Schneider JA, Arvanitakis Z, Kelly JF, Aggarwal NT, Shah RC, Wilson RS: Neuropathology of older persons without cognitive impairment from two community-based studies. Neurology 2006;66:1837–1844.
  42. Schneider JA, Li JL, Li Y, Wilson RS, Kordower JH, Bennett DA: Substantia nigra tangles are related to gait impairment in older persons. Ann Neurol 2006;59:166–173.
  43. Gearing M, Levey AI, Mirra SS: Diffuse plaques in the striatum in Alzheimer disease (AD): relationship to the striatal mosaic and selected neuropeptide markers. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997;56:1363–1370.
  44. Wolf DS, Gearing M, Snowdon DA, Mori H, Markesbery WR, Mirra SS: Progression of regional neuropathology in Alzheimer disease and normal elderly: findings from the Nun study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1999;4:226–231.
  45. Horoupian DS, Wasserstein PH: Alzheimer’s disease pathology in motor cortex in dementia with Lewy bodies clinically mimicking corticobasal degeneration. Acta Neuropathol 1999;98:317–322.
  46. Burns JM, Galvin JE, Roe CM, Morris JC, McKeel DW: The pathology of the substantia nigra in Alzheimer disease with extrapyramidal signs. Neurology 2005;64:1397–1403.
  47. Suva D, Favre I, Kraftsik R, Esteban M, Lobrinus A, Miklossy J: Primary motor cortex involvement in Alzheimer disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1999;58:1125–1134.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50