Collagen I Gel Can Facilitate Homogenous Bone Formation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in PLGA-β-TCP ScaffoldHao W. · Hu Y.-Y. · Wei Y.-Y. · Pang L. · Lv R. · Bai J.-P. · Xiong Z. · Jiang M.
aInstitute of Orthopaedics, Xijing Hospital, and bDepartment of Oral Histology and Pathology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an; cDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China
Cell-based tissue engineering is thought to be a new therapy for treatment of bone defects and nonunions after trauma and tumor resection. In this study, we explore the in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis of a novel biomimetic construct fabricated by using collagen I gel to suspend rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (rASCs) into a porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid-β-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA-β-TCP) scaffold (rASCs-COL/PLGA-β-TCP). In vitro and in vivo studies of the rASCs-COL/PLGA-β-TCP composite (group A) were carried out compared with the single combination of rASCs and PLGA-β-TCP (rASCs/PLGA-β-TCP; group B), the combination of acellular collagen I gel and PLGA-β-TCP (COL/PLGA-β-TCP; group C), and the PLGA-β-TCP scaffold (group D). Composites of different groups were cultured in vitro for 2 weeks in osteogenic medium and then implanted into the autologous muscular intervals for 8 weeks. After 2 weeks of in vitro culture, alkaline phosphatase activity and extracellular matrix mineralization in group A were significantly higher than in group B (p < 0.01, n = 4). In vivo osteogenesis was evaluated by radiographic and histological analyses. The calcification level was radiographically evident in group A, whereas no apparent calcification was observed in groups B, C and D (n = 4). In group A, woven bone with a trabecular structure was formed, while in group B, only osteoid tissue was observed. Meanwhile, the bone-forming area in group A was significantly higher than in group B (p < 0.01, n = 4). No bone formation was observed in groups C or D (n = 4). In conclusion, by using collagen I gel to suspend rASCs into porous PLGA-β-TCP scaffold, osteogenic differentiation of rASCs can be improved and homogeneous bone tissue can be successfully formed in vivo.