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Table of Contents
Vol. 25, No. 3, 2008
Issue release date: March 2008
Section title: Original Research Article
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;25:206–211
(DOI:10.1159/000113418)

Psychotic Symptoms in Frontotemporal Dementia: Prevalence and Review

Mendez M.F.a, b, c · Shapira J.S.a · Woods R.J.a, c · Licht E.A.a, c · Saul R.E.a, c
Departments of aNeurology and bPsychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, and cNeurobehavior Unit, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background/Aims: Although most patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, the frequency of psychotic symptoms is unclear. This study aims to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in a large cohort of well-diagnosed and followed FTD patients compared to age-matched patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to further review the literature on psychosis in FTD. Methods: Delusions, hallucinations and paranoia were evaluated among 86 patients who met consensus criteria for FTD, had frontotemporal changes on functional neuroimaging and were followed for 2 years. They were compared to 23 patients with early-onset AD on a caregiver-administered psychiatric questionnaire. Results: Among the FTD patients, only 2 (2.3%) had delusions, 1 of whom had paranoid ideation; no FTD patient had hallucinations. This was significantly less than the AD patients, 4 (17.4%) of whom had delusions and paranoia. Other investigations fail to establish a significant association of psychosis with FTD. Conclusions: These findings, and a literature review, indicate that psychotic symptoms are rare in FTD, possibly due to limited temporal-limbic involvement in this disorder.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Psychosis
  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Alzheimer’s disease

References

  1. Neary D, Snowden JS, Gustafson L, Passant U, Stuss D, Black S, Freedman M, Kertesz A, Robert PH, Albert M, Boone K, Miller BL, Cummings J, Benson DF: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 1998;51:1546–1554.
  2. Mendez MF, Perryman KM: Neuropsychiatric features of frontotemporal dementia: evaluation of consensus criteria and review. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002;14:424–429.
  3. Mendez MF, Shapira JS, McMurtray A, Licht E, Miller BL: Accuracy of the clinical evaluation for frontotemporal dementia. Arch Neurol 2007;64:830–835.
  4. Passant U, Elfgren C, Englund E, Gustafson L: Psychiatric symptoms and their psychosocial consequences in frontotemporal dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2005;19(suppl 1):S15–S18.
  5. Gregory CA, Hodges JR: Clinical features of frontal lobe dementia in comparison to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 1996;47:103–123.
  6. Kertesz A: Pick Complex: an integrative approach to frontotemporal dementia: primary progressive aphasia, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurologist 2003;9:311–317.
  7. Goldstein K, Katz SE: The psychopathology of Pick’s disease. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1937;38:473–490.

    External Resources

  8. Gustafson L: Clinical picture of frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type. Dementia 1993;4:143–148.
  9. Gustafson L: Frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type. II. Clinical picture and differential diagnosis. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1987;6:209–223.
  10. Neary D, Snowden JS, Northen B, Goulding P: Dementia of frontal lobe type. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:353–361.
  11. Miller BL, Cummings JL, Villanueva-Meyer J, Boone K, Mehringer CM, Lesser IM, Mena I: Frontal lobe degeneration: clinical, neuropsychological and SPECT characteristics. Neurology 1991;41:1374–1382.
  12. Miller BL, Chang L, Mena I, Boone K, Lesser IM: Progressive right frontotemporal degeneration: clinical, neuropsychological and SPECT characteristics. Dementia 1993;4:204–213.
  13. Waddington JL, Youssef HA, Farrell MA, Toland J: Initial schizophrenia-like psychosis in Pick’s disease: case study with neuroimaging and neuropathology, and implications for frontotemporal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1995;18:79–82.
  14. Kitabayashi Y, Otakara C, Hirosawa R, Narumoto J, Fukui K: Frontotemporal dementia complicated with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;59:749–750.
  15. Lamote H, Tan KL, Verhoeven WM: Frontotemporale dementie bij een jonge vrouw met ogenschijnlijk schizofrenie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998;142:1962–1965.
  16. Dell DL, Halford JJ: Dementia presenting as postpartum depression. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:925–928.
  17. Vanderzeypen F, Bier JC, Genevrois C, Mendlewicz J, Lotstra F: Démence frontale ou ‘démence précoce’? A propos de l’observation d’un trouble psychotique associé à une détérioration sévère. Encephale 2003;29:172–180.
  18. Kerssens CJ, Pijnenburg YA, Schouws S, Eikelenboom P, van Tilburg W: Het ontstaan van psychotische verschijnselen op latere leeftijd: laat onstane schizofrenie of frontotemporale dementia? Tijdschr Psychiatr 2006;48:739–744.
  19. Reischle E, Sturm K, Schuierer G, Ibach B: Ein Fall von schizophrenieformer Störung bei frontotemporaler Demenz (FTD). Psychiatr Prax 2003;30(suppl 2):S78–S82.

    External Resources

  20. Levy ML, Miller BL, Cummings JL, Fairbanks LA, Craig A: Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementias: behavioral distinctions. Arch Neurol 1996;53:687–690.
  21. Liu W, Miller BL, Kramer JH, Rankin K, Wyss-Coray C, Gearhart R, Phengrasamy L, Weiner M, Rosen HJ: Behavioral disorders in the frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia. Neurology 2004;62:742–748.
  22. Lopez OL GM, Becker JT, Reynolds CF, Sudilovsky A, DeKosky ST: Symptoms of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1996;9:154–161.

    External Resources

  23. Hirono N, Mori E, Tanimukai S, Kazui H, Hashimoto M, Hanihara T, Imamura T: Distinctive neurobehavioral features among neurodegenerative dementias. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999;11:498–503.
  24. Mourik JC, Rosso SM, Niermeijer MF, Duivenvoorden HJ, van Swieten JC, Tibben A: Frontotemporal dementia: behavioral symptoms and caregiver distress. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:299–306.
  25. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  26. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  27. Hughes CP, Berg L, Danzinger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL: A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:566–572.
  28. McKhann GM, Albert MS, Grossman M, Miller B, Dickson D, Trojanowski JQ, Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick’s Disease: Clinical and pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia: report of the Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick’s Disease. Arch Neurol 2001;58:1803–1809.
  29. Stone J, Griffiths TD, Rastogi S, Perry RH, Cleland PG: Non-Picks frontotemporal dementia imitating schizophrenia in a 22-year-old man. J Neurol 2003;250:369–370.
  30. Jansen Steur EN: Frontotemporale dementie bij een jonge vrouw met ogenschijnlijk schizofrenie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998;142:1962–1965.

    External Resources

  31. Diehl J, Kurz A: Frontotemporal dementia: patient characteristics, cognition, and behaviour. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17:914–918.
  32. Edwards-Lee T, Miller BL, Benson DF, Cummings JL, Russell GL, Boone K, Mena I: The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain 1997;120:1027–1040.
  33. Bozeat S, Gregory CA, Ralph MA, Hodges JR: Which neuropsychiatric and behavioural features distinguish frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:178–186.
  34. Le Ber I, Guedj E, Gabelle A, et al: Demographic, neurological and behavioural characteristics and brain perfusion SPECT in frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain 2006;129:3051–3065.
  35. Mendez MF, McMurtray A, Chen AK, Shapira JS, Mishkin F, Miller BL: Functional neuroimaging and presenting psychiatric features in frontotemporal dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:4–7.
  36. Gregory CA: Frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of neuropsychiatric features. Psychol Med 1999;29:1205–1217.
  37. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44:2308–2314.
  38. Engelborghs S, Maertens K, Nagels G, Vloeberghs E, Marien P, Symons A, Ketels V, Estercam S, Somers N, De Deyn PP: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: crosssectional analysis from a prospective, longitudinal Belgian study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005;20:1028–1037.
  39. Liscic RM, Storandt M, Cairns NJ, Morris JC: Clinical and psychometric distinction of frontotemporal and Alzheimer dementias. Arch Neurol 2007;64:535–540.
  40. Schneider LS, Dagerman KS: Psychosis of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical characteristics and history. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38:105–111.
  41. Sultzer DL, Brown C, Mandelkern MA, Mahler ME, Mendez MF, Chen ST, Cummings JL: Delusional thoughts and regional frontal/temporal cortex metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:341–349.
  42. Richardson ED, Malloy PF: The frontal lobes and content-specific delusions; in Salloway SP, Malloy PF, Duffy JD (eds): The Frontal Lobes and Neuropsychiatric Illness. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 2001, pp 215–232.
  43. Farber NB, Rubin EH, Newcomer JW, Kinscherf DA, Miller JP, Morris JC, Olney JW, McKeel DW Jr: Increased neocortical neurofibrillary tangle density in subjects with Alzheimer disease and psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:1165–1173.
  44. Mentis MJ, Weinstein EA, Horwitz B, McIntosh AR, Pietrini P, Alexander GE, Furey M, Murphy DGM: Abnormal brain glucose metabolism in the delusional misidentification syndromes: a positron emission tomography study in Alzheimer disease. Biol Psychiatry 1995;38:438–449.
  45. Lopez OL, Smith G, Becker JT, Meltzer CC, DeKosky ST: The psychotic phenomenon in probable Alzheimer’s disease: a positron emission tomography study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:50–55.
  46. Rosen HJ, Gorno-Tempini ML, Goldman WP, Perry RJ, Schuff N, Weiner M, Feiwell R, Kramer JH, Miller BL: Patterns of brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia. Neurology 2002;58:198–208.
  47. Engelborghs S, Maertens K, Marien P, Vloeberghs E, Somers N, Nagels G, De Deyn PP: Behavioural and neuropsychological correlates of frontal lobe features in dementia. Psychol Med 2006;36:1173–1182.
  48. Mendez MF, Lipton A: Emergent neuroleptic hypersensitivity as a herald of presenile dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:347–356.
  49. Pijnenburg YA, Sampson EL, Harvey RJ, Fox NC, Rossor MN: Vulnerability to neuroleptic side effects in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;18:67–72.

  

Author Contacts

M.F. Mendez
Neurobehavior Unit (116AF; Bldg 500, 3S)
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare, 11301 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90073 (USA)
Tel. +1 310 478 3711, ext. 42696, Fax +1 310 268 4181, E-Mail mmendez@ucla.edu

  

Article Information

Accepted: November 19, 2007
Published online: January 17, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 49

  

Publication Details

Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Vol. 25, No. 3, Year 2008 (Cover Date: March 2008)

Journal Editor: Chan-Palay, V. (New York, N.Y.)
ISSN: 1420–8008 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Background/Aims: Although most patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, the frequency of psychotic symptoms is unclear. This study aims to determine the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in a large cohort of well-diagnosed and followed FTD patients compared to age-matched patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and to further review the literature on psychosis in FTD. Methods: Delusions, hallucinations and paranoia were evaluated among 86 patients who met consensus criteria for FTD, had frontotemporal changes on functional neuroimaging and were followed for 2 years. They were compared to 23 patients with early-onset AD on a caregiver-administered psychiatric questionnaire. Results: Among the FTD patients, only 2 (2.3%) had delusions, 1 of whom had paranoid ideation; no FTD patient had hallucinations. This was significantly less than the AD patients, 4 (17.4%) of whom had delusions and paranoia. Other investigations fail to establish a significant association of psychosis with FTD. Conclusions: These findings, and a literature review, indicate that psychotic symptoms are rare in FTD, possibly due to limited temporal-limbic involvement in this disorder.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

M.F. Mendez
Neurobehavior Unit (116AF; Bldg 500, 3S)
VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare, 11301 Wilshire Blvd.
Los Angeles, CA 90073 (USA)
Tel. +1 310 478 3711, ext. 42696, Fax +1 310 268 4181, E-Mail mmendez@ucla.edu

  

Article Information

Accepted: November 19, 2007
Published online: January 17, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 49

  

Publication Details

Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Vol. 25, No. 3, Year 2008 (Cover Date: March 2008)

Journal Editor: Chan-Palay, V. (New York, N.Y.)
ISSN: 1420–8008 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Research Article

Accepted: 11/19/2007
Published online: 1/17/2008
Issue release date: March 2008

Number of Print Pages: 6
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1420-8008 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Neary D, Snowden JS, Gustafson L, Passant U, Stuss D, Black S, Freedman M, Kertesz A, Robert PH, Albert M, Boone K, Miller BL, Cummings J, Benson DF: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology 1998;51:1546–1554.
  2. Mendez MF, Perryman KM: Neuropsychiatric features of frontotemporal dementia: evaluation of consensus criteria and review. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2002;14:424–429.
  3. Mendez MF, Shapira JS, McMurtray A, Licht E, Miller BL: Accuracy of the clinical evaluation for frontotemporal dementia. Arch Neurol 2007;64:830–835.
  4. Passant U, Elfgren C, Englund E, Gustafson L: Psychiatric symptoms and their psychosocial consequences in frontotemporal dementia. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2005;19(suppl 1):S15–S18.
  5. Gregory CA, Hodges JR: Clinical features of frontal lobe dementia in comparison to Alzheimer’s disease. J Neural Transm Suppl 1996;47:103–123.
  6. Kertesz A: Pick Complex: an integrative approach to frontotemporal dementia: primary progressive aphasia, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurologist 2003;9:311–317.
  7. Goldstein K, Katz SE: The psychopathology of Pick’s disease. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1937;38:473–490.

    External Resources

  8. Gustafson L: Clinical picture of frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type. Dementia 1993;4:143–148.
  9. Gustafson L: Frontal lobe degeneration of non-Alzheimer type. II. Clinical picture and differential diagnosis. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1987;6:209–223.
  10. Neary D, Snowden JS, Northen B, Goulding P: Dementia of frontal lobe type. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:353–361.
  11. Miller BL, Cummings JL, Villanueva-Meyer J, Boone K, Mehringer CM, Lesser IM, Mena I: Frontal lobe degeneration: clinical, neuropsychological and SPECT characteristics. Neurology 1991;41:1374–1382.
  12. Miller BL, Chang L, Mena I, Boone K, Lesser IM: Progressive right frontotemporal degeneration: clinical, neuropsychological and SPECT characteristics. Dementia 1993;4:204–213.
  13. Waddington JL, Youssef HA, Farrell MA, Toland J: Initial schizophrenia-like psychosis in Pick’s disease: case study with neuroimaging and neuropathology, and implications for frontotemporal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1995;18:79–82.
  14. Kitabayashi Y, Otakara C, Hirosawa R, Narumoto J, Fukui K: Frontotemporal dementia complicated with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;59:749–750.
  15. Lamote H, Tan KL, Verhoeven WM: Frontotemporale dementie bij een jonge vrouw met ogenschijnlijk schizofrenie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998;142:1962–1965.
  16. Dell DL, Halford JJ: Dementia presenting as postpartum depression. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99:925–928.
  17. Vanderzeypen F, Bier JC, Genevrois C, Mendlewicz J, Lotstra F: Démence frontale ou ‘démence précoce’? A propos de l’observation d’un trouble psychotique associé à une détérioration sévère. Encephale 2003;29:172–180.
  18. Kerssens CJ, Pijnenburg YA, Schouws S, Eikelenboom P, van Tilburg W: Het ontstaan van psychotische verschijnselen op latere leeftijd: laat onstane schizofrenie of frontotemporale dementia? Tijdschr Psychiatr 2006;48:739–744.
  19. Reischle E, Sturm K, Schuierer G, Ibach B: Ein Fall von schizophrenieformer Störung bei frontotemporaler Demenz (FTD). Psychiatr Prax 2003;30(suppl 2):S78–S82.

    External Resources

  20. Levy ML, Miller BL, Cummings JL, Fairbanks LA, Craig A: Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal dementias: behavioral distinctions. Arch Neurol 1996;53:687–690.
  21. Liu W, Miller BL, Kramer JH, Rankin K, Wyss-Coray C, Gearhart R, Phengrasamy L, Weiner M, Rosen HJ: Behavioral disorders in the frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia. Neurology 2004;62:742–748.
  22. Lopez OL GM, Becker JT, Reynolds CF, Sudilovsky A, DeKosky ST: Symptoms of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1996;9:154–161.

    External Resources

  23. Hirono N, Mori E, Tanimukai S, Kazui H, Hashimoto M, Hanihara T, Imamura T: Distinctive neurobehavioral features among neurodegenerative dementias. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1999;11:498–503.
  24. Mourik JC, Rosso SM, Niermeijer MF, Duivenvoorden HJ, van Swieten JC, Tibben A: Frontotemporal dementia: behavioral symptoms and caregiver distress. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004;18:299–306.
  25. McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM: Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of the Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurology 1984;34:939–944.
  26. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR: ‘Mini-Mental State’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975;12:189–198.
  27. Hughes CP, Berg L, Danzinger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL: A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982;140:566–572.
  28. McKhann GM, Albert MS, Grossman M, Miller B, Dickson D, Trojanowski JQ, Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick’s Disease: Clinical and pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia: report of the Work Group on Frontotemporal Dementia and Pick’s Disease. Arch Neurol 2001;58:1803–1809.
  29. Stone J, Griffiths TD, Rastogi S, Perry RH, Cleland PG: Non-Picks frontotemporal dementia imitating schizophrenia in a 22-year-old man. J Neurol 2003;250:369–370.
  30. Jansen Steur EN: Frontotemporale dementie bij een jonge vrouw met ogenschijnlijk schizofrenie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1998;142:1962–1965.

    External Resources

  31. Diehl J, Kurz A: Frontotemporal dementia: patient characteristics, cognition, and behaviour. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17:914–918.
  32. Edwards-Lee T, Miller BL, Benson DF, Cummings JL, Russell GL, Boone K, Mena I: The temporal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain 1997;120:1027–1040.
  33. Bozeat S, Gregory CA, Ralph MA, Hodges JR: Which neuropsychiatric and behavioural features distinguish frontal and temporal variants of frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;69:178–186.
  34. Le Ber I, Guedj E, Gabelle A, et al: Demographic, neurological and behavioural characteristics and brain perfusion SPECT in frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Brain 2006;129:3051–3065.
  35. Mendez MF, McMurtray A, Chen AK, Shapira JS, Mishkin F, Miller BL: Functional neuroimaging and presenting psychiatric features in frontotemporal dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:4–7.
  36. Gregory CA: Frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of neuropsychiatric features. Psychol Med 1999;29:1205–1217.
  37. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994;44:2308–2314.
  38. Engelborghs S, Maertens K, Nagels G, Vloeberghs E, Marien P, Symons A, Ketels V, Estercam S, Somers N, De Deyn PP: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia: crosssectional analysis from a prospective, longitudinal Belgian study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2005;20:1028–1037.
  39. Liscic RM, Storandt M, Cairns NJ, Morris JC: Clinical and psychometric distinction of frontotemporal and Alzheimer dementias. Arch Neurol 2007;64:535–540.
  40. Schneider LS, Dagerman KS: Psychosis of Alzheimer’s disease: clinical characteristics and history. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38:105–111.
  41. Sultzer DL, Brown C, Mandelkern MA, Mahler ME, Mendez MF, Chen ST, Cummings JL: Delusional thoughts and regional frontal/temporal cortex metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:341–349.
  42. Richardson ED, Malloy PF: The frontal lobes and content-specific delusions; in Salloway SP, Malloy PF, Duffy JD (eds): The Frontal Lobes and Neuropsychiatric Illness. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 2001, pp 215–232.
  43. Farber NB, Rubin EH, Newcomer JW, Kinscherf DA, Miller JP, Morris JC, Olney JW, McKeel DW Jr: Increased neocortical neurofibrillary tangle density in subjects with Alzheimer disease and psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:1165–1173.
  44. Mentis MJ, Weinstein EA, Horwitz B, McIntosh AR, Pietrini P, Alexander GE, Furey M, Murphy DGM: Abnormal brain glucose metabolism in the delusional misidentification syndromes: a positron emission tomography study in Alzheimer disease. Biol Psychiatry 1995;38:438–449.
  45. Lopez OL, Smith G, Becker JT, Meltzer CC, DeKosky ST: The psychotic phenomenon in probable Alzheimer’s disease: a positron emission tomography study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:50–55.
  46. Rosen HJ, Gorno-Tempini ML, Goldman WP, Perry RJ, Schuff N, Weiner M, Feiwell R, Kramer JH, Miller BL: Patterns of brain atrophy in frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia. Neurology 2002;58:198–208.
  47. Engelborghs S, Maertens K, Marien P, Vloeberghs E, Somers N, Nagels G, De Deyn PP: Behavioural and neuropsychological correlates of frontal lobe features in dementia. Psychol Med 2006;36:1173–1182.
  48. Mendez MF, Lipton A: Emergent neuroleptic hypersensitivity as a herald of presenile dementia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;13:347–356.
  49. Pijnenburg YA, Sampson EL, Harvey RJ, Fox NC, Rossor MN: Vulnerability to neuroleptic side effects in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003;18:67–72.