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Vol. 1, No. 4, 2008
Issue release date: June 2008
Free Access
J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2008;1:155–171
(DOI:10.1159/000113657)

Transcriptional Profiling of Chromosome 17 Quantitative Trait Loci for Carbohydrate and Total Calorie Intake in a Mouse Congenic Strain Reveals Candidate Genes and Pathways

Kumar K.G. · Smith Richards B.K.
Division of Experimental Obesity, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, La., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background/Aims: The genetic basis for ingestive behaviors is virtually unknown. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for carbohydrate and energy intake map to mouse chromosome 17 and were previously confirmed by a congenic strain bearing CAST/Ei (CAST) donor segment on the C57BL/6J (B6) background. Methods: We used microarray technology to facilitate gene identification. Gene expression was compared between the B6.CAST-17 (BC-17) congenic and B6 strains in two diets: (1) chow, and (2) carbohydrate/protein vs. fat/protein. Results: Within the QTL and unique to macronutrient selection, Agpat1 (acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1) was differentially expressed in hypothalamus. Irrespective of diet, the gene with the highest fold difference in congenic mice was trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) in liver. Several genes involved in fat metabolism were decreased in carbohydrate-preferring congenic mice, while genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism were increased. In particular, the glyoxalase pathway was enhanced including Glo1, Glo2, and dLDH. Higher expression of Glo1 mRNA in BC-17 congenic mice corresponded to increased protein expression revealed by Western blot, and to higher GLO1 activity in blood. Conclusion: These genes represent new candidates for nutrient intake phenotypes. We propose that increased GLO1 in the BC-17 strain supports its need to protect against dietary oxidants resulting from high carbohydrate intake.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • QTL mapping
  • Mouse chromosome 17
  • Congenic
  • Microarray
  • Food intake

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background/Aims: The genetic basis for ingestive behaviors is virtually unknown. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for carbohydrate and energy intake map to mouse chromosome 17 and were previously confirmed by a congenic strain bearing CAST/Ei (CAST) donor segment on the C57BL/6J (B6) background. Methods: We used microarray technology to facilitate gene identification. Gene expression was compared between the B6.CAST-17 (BC-17) congenic and B6 strains in two diets: (1) chow, and (2) carbohydrate/protein vs. fat/protein. Results: Within the QTL and unique to macronutrient selection, Agpat1 (acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1) was differentially expressed in hypothalamus. Irrespective of diet, the gene with the highest fold difference in congenic mice was trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) in liver. Several genes involved in fat metabolism were decreased in carbohydrate-preferring congenic mice, while genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism were increased. In particular, the glyoxalase pathway was enhanced including Glo1, Glo2, and dLDH. Higher expression of Glo1 mRNA in BC-17 congenic mice corresponded to increased protein expression revealed by Western blot, and to higher GLO1 activity in blood. Conclusion: These genes represent new candidates for nutrient intake phenotypes. We propose that increased GLO1 in the BC-17 strain supports its need to protect against dietary oxidants resulting from high carbohydrate intake.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Birch LL: Children’s preferences for high-fat foods. Nutr Rev 1992;50:249–255.
  2. Blundell JE, Cooling J: Routes to obesity: phenotypes, food choices and activity. Br J Nutr 2000;83(suppl 1):S33–S38.
  3. de Castro JM: What are the major correlates of macronutrient selection in Western populations? Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:755–763.
  4. Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD: Dietary fat:carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:995–1000.
  5. Falciglia GA, Norton PA: Evidence for a genetic influence on preference for some foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:154–158.
  6. Geiselman PJ, Anderson AM, Dowdy ML, West DB, Redmann SM, Smith SR: Reliability and validity of a macronutrient self-selection paradigm and a food preference questionnaire. Physiol Behav 1998;63:919–928.
  7. Macdiarmid JI, Cade JE, Blundell JE: High and low fat consumers, their macronutrient intake and body mass index: further analysis of the national diet and nutrition survey of British adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:505–512.
  8. Pilgrim J, and Patton RA: Patterns of self-selection of purified dietary components by the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1947;40:343–348.
  9. Scott EM: Self selection of diet. J Nutr 1946;31:397–406.
  10. York DA, Lin L, Smith BK, Chen J: Enterostatin as a regulator of fat intake; in Berthoud HR, Seeley RJ (eds): Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2000, pp 361–387.
  11. Okada S, York DA, Bray GA, Mei J, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Differential inhibition of fat intake in two strains of rat by the peptide enterostatin. Am J Physiol 1992;262:R1111–R1116.
  12. Overmann SR: Dietary self-selection by animals. Psychol Bull 1976;83:218–235.
  13. Smith BK, West DB, York DA: Carbohydrate vs. fat intake: differing patterns of macronutrient selection in two inbred mouse strains. Am J Physiol 1997;272:R357–R362.
  14. Smith, BK, Berthoud H-R, York DA, Bray GA: Differential effects of baseline macronutrient preferences on macronutrient selection after galanin, NPY, and an overnight fast. Peptides 1997;18:207–211.
  15. Shor-Posner G, Ian C, Brennan G, Cohn T, Moy H, Ning A, Leibowitz SF: Self-selecting albino rats exhibit differential preferences for pure macronutrient diets: characterization of three subpopulations. Physiol Behav 1991;50:1187–1195.
  16. Smith BK, Andrews PK, West DB: Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains. Am J Physiol 2000;278:R797–R805.
  17. Smith Richards BK,Belton BN, Poole AC, Mancuso JJ,Churchill GA, Li R, Volaufova J, Zuberi A, York B: QTL analysis of self-selected macronutrient diet intake: fat, carbohydrate, and total kilocalories. Physiol Genomics 2002;11:205–217.
  18. Kumar KG, Poole AC, York B, Volaufova J, Zuberi A, Smith Richards BK: Quantitative trait loci for carbohydrate and total energy intake on mouse Chromosome 17: Congenic strain confirmation and candidate gene analyses (Glo1, Glp1r). Am J Physiol 2007;292:R207–R216.
  19. Wakeland E, Morel L, Achey K, Yui M, Longmate J: Speed congenics: a classic technique in the fast lane (relatively speaking). Immunol Today 1997;18:472–477.
  20. Berthoud HR: An overview of neural pathways and networks involved in the control of food intake and selection; in Berthoud HR, Seeley RJ (eds): Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2000, pp 361–387.
  21. Cupples WA: Physiological regulation of food intake. Am J Physiol 2005;288:R1438–R1443.
  22. Friedman MI, Horn CC, Ji H: Peripheral signals in the control of feeding behavior. Chem Senses 2005;30(suppl 1):i182–i183.
  23. Horn CC, Addis A, Friedman MI: Neural substrate for an integrated metabolic control of feeding behavior. Am J Physiol 1999;276:R113–R119.
  24. Levin BE: Metabolic sensing neurons and the control of energy homeostasis. Physiol Behav 2006;89:486–489.
  25. Smith Richards BK, Belton BN, York B, Volaufova J: Mice bearing Acads mutation display altered postingestive but not 5-s orosensory response to dietary fat. Am J Physiol 2004;286:R311–R319.
  26. Woods SC, Lutz TA, Geary N, Langhans W: Pancreatic signals controlling food intake; insulin, glucagon and amylin. Phil Trans R Soc Lond [B] 2006;361:1219–1235.
  27. Bolstad BM, Irizarry RA, Astrand M, Speed TP: A comparison of normalization methods for high density oligonucleotide array data based on bias and variance. Bioinformatics 2003;19:185–193.
  28. Han LP, Davison LM, Vander Jagt DL: Purification and kinetic study of glyoxalase-I from rat liver, erythrocytes, brain and kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;445:486–499.
  29. Dong MQ, Chase D, Patikoglou GA, Koelle MR: Multiple RGS proteins alter neural G protein signaling to allow C. elegans to rapidly change behavior when fed. Genes Dev 2000;14:2003–2014.
  30. Donkor J, Sariahmetoglu M, Dewald J, Brindley DN, Reue K: Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns. J Biol Chem 2007;282:3450–3457.
  31. Longo KA, Wright WS, Kang S, Gerin I, Chiang SH, Lucas PC, Opp MR, MacDougald OA: Wnt10b inhibits development of white and brown adipose tissue. J Biol Chem 2004;279:35503–35509.
  32. Yamazaki H, Yanagawa S: Axin and the Axin/Arrow-binding protein DCAP mediate glucose-glycogen metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003;304:229–235.
  33. Whiteman EL, Chen JJ, Birnbaum MJ: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes overexpressing PDGF receptor by a pathway independent of insulin receptor substrates. Endocrinology 2003;144:3811–3820.
  34. Flint J, Valdar W, Shifman S, Mott R: Strategies for mapping and cloning quantitative trait genes in rodents. Nat Rev Genet 2005;6:271–286.
  35. Aitman TJ, Glazier AM, Wallace CA, Cooper LD, Norsworthy PJ, Wahid FN, Al-Majali KM, Trembling PM, Mann CJ, Shoulders CC, Graf D, St Lezin E, Kurtz TW, Kren V, Pravenec M, Ibrahimi A, Abumrad NA, Stanton LW, Scott J: Identification of Cd36 (Fat) as an insulin-resistance gene causing defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism in hypertensive rats. Nat Genet 1999;21:76–83.
  36. Kaput J, Rodriquez RL: Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics 2004;16:166–177.
  37. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Man MQ, Brown B, Elias PM, Feingold KR: Expression and regulation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases in the epidermis. J Lipid Res 2005;46:2448–2457.
  38. Saito N, Shirai Y: Protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma): function of neuron specific isotype. J Biochem (Tokyo) 2002;132:683–687.
  39. Ankrah NA, Appiah-Opong R: Toxicity of low levels of methylglyoxal: depletion of blood glutathione and adverse effect on glucose tolerance in mice. Toxicol Lett 1999;109:61–67.
  40. Thornalley PJ: Glutathione-dependent detoxification of α-oxoaldehydes by the glyoxalase system: involvement in disease mechanisms and antiproliferative activity of glyoxalase I inhibitors. Chem Biol Interact 1998;111–112:137–151.
  41. Bari L, Atlante A, Guarangnella N, Principata G, Passarella S: D-Lactate transport and metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Biochem J 2002;365:391–403.
  42. Hovatta I, Tennant RS, Helton R, Marr RA, Singer O, Redwine JM, Ellison JA, Schadt EE, Verma IM, Lockhart DJ, Barlow C: Glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reductase 1 regulate anxiety in mice. Nature 2005;438:662–666.
  43. Thornalley PJ: Unease on the role of glyoxalase 1 in high-anxiety-related behaviour. Trends Mol Med 2006;12:195–199.
  44. Tafti M, Petit B, Chollet D, Neidhart E, de Bilbao F, Kiss JZ, Wood PA, Franken P: Deficiency in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation affects theta oscillations during sleep. Nat Genet 2003;34:320–325.
  45. Geisbrecht BV, Liang X, Morrell JC, Schulz H, Gould SJ: The mouse gene PDCR encodes a peroxisomal delta(2), delta(4)-dienoyl-CoA reductase. J Biol Chem 1999;274:25814–25820.
  46. Huang XS, Zhao SP, Hu M, Luo YP: Apolipoprotein M likely extends its anti-atherogenesis via anti-inflammation. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:136–40. Epub 2007 Jan 10.
  47. Smith JD, Bhasin JM, Baglione J, Settle M, Xu Y, Barnard J: Atherosclerosis susceptibility loci identified from a strain intercross of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via a high-density genome scan. Aterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006;26:597–603.
  48. Taylor BA, Phillips SJ: Obesity QTLs on mouse chromosomes 2 and 17. Genomics 1997;43:249–257.
  49. Aljada A, Friedman J, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hofmeyer D, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P: Glucose ingestion induces an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB, a fall in cellular inhibitor kappaB, and an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA by mononuclear cells in healthy human subjects. Metabolism 2006;55:1177–1185.
  50. Taupin D, Podolsky DK: Trefoil factors: initiators of mucosal healing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2003;4:721–732.
  51. Nozaki I, Lunz JG 3rd, Specht S, Park JI, Giraud AS, Murase N, Demetris AJ: Regulation and function of trefoil factor family 3 expression in the biliary tree. Am J Pathol 2004;165:1907–1920.
  52. Brown AC, Olver WI, Donnelly CJ, May ME, Naggert JK, Shaffer DJ, Roopenian DC: Searching QTL by gene expression: analysis of diabesity. BMC Genet 2005;6:12.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Brenda K. Smith Richards, PhD
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
6400 Perkins Road
Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124 (USA)
Tel. +1 225 763 2562, Fax +1 225 763 2525, E-Mail richarbk@pbrc.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: July 23, 2007
Accepted: October 5, 2007
Published online: January 17, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 17
Number of Figures : 7, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 52


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics

Vol. 1, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: June 2008)

Journal Editor: Vohl, M.-C. (Quebec, Que.)
ISSN: 1661–6499 (Print), eISSN: 1661–6758 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JNN


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Background/Aims: The genetic basis for ingestive behaviors is virtually unknown. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for carbohydrate and energy intake map to mouse chromosome 17 and were previously confirmed by a congenic strain bearing CAST/Ei (CAST) donor segment on the C57BL/6J (B6) background. Methods: We used microarray technology to facilitate gene identification. Gene expression was compared between the B6.CAST-17 (BC-17) congenic and B6 strains in two diets: (1) chow, and (2) carbohydrate/protein vs. fat/protein. Results: Within the QTL and unique to macronutrient selection, Agpat1 (acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1) was differentially expressed in hypothalamus. Irrespective of diet, the gene with the highest fold difference in congenic mice was trefoil factor 3 (Tff3) in liver. Several genes involved in fat metabolism were decreased in carbohydrate-preferring congenic mice, while genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism were increased. In particular, the glyoxalase pathway was enhanced including Glo1, Glo2, and dLDH. Higher expression of Glo1 mRNA in BC-17 congenic mice corresponded to increased protein expression revealed by Western blot, and to higher GLO1 activity in blood. Conclusion: These genes represent new candidates for nutrient intake phenotypes. We propose that increased GLO1 in the BC-17 strain supports its need to protect against dietary oxidants resulting from high carbohydrate intake.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Brenda K. Smith Richards, PhD
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
6400 Perkins Road
Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124 (USA)
Tel. +1 225 763 2562, Fax +1 225 763 2525, E-Mail richarbk@pbrc.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: July 23, 2007
Accepted: October 5, 2007
Published online: January 17, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 17
Number of Figures : 7, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 52


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics

Vol. 1, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: June 2008)

Journal Editor: Vohl, M.-C. (Quebec, Que.)
ISSN: 1661–6499 (Print), eISSN: 1661–6758 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JNN


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Birch LL: Children’s preferences for high-fat foods. Nutr Rev 1992;50:249–255.
  2. Blundell JE, Cooling J: Routes to obesity: phenotypes, food choices and activity. Br J Nutr 2000;83(suppl 1):S33–S38.
  3. de Castro JM: What are the major correlates of macronutrient selection in Western populations? Proc Nutr Soc 1999;58:755–763.
  4. Dreon DM, Frey-Hewitt B, Ellsworth N, Williams PT, Terry RB, Wood PD: Dietary fat:carbohydrate ratio and obesity in middle-aged men. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;47:995–1000.
  5. Falciglia GA, Norton PA: Evidence for a genetic influence on preference for some foods. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:154–158.
  6. Geiselman PJ, Anderson AM, Dowdy ML, West DB, Redmann SM, Smith SR: Reliability and validity of a macronutrient self-selection paradigm and a food preference questionnaire. Physiol Behav 1998;63:919–928.
  7. Macdiarmid JI, Cade JE, Blundell JE: High and low fat consumers, their macronutrient intake and body mass index: further analysis of the national diet and nutrition survey of British adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50:505–512.
  8. Pilgrim J, and Patton RA: Patterns of self-selection of purified dietary components by the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1947;40:343–348.
  9. Scott EM: Self selection of diet. J Nutr 1946;31:397–406.
  10. York DA, Lin L, Smith BK, Chen J: Enterostatin as a regulator of fat intake; in Berthoud HR, Seeley RJ (eds): Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2000, pp 361–387.
  11. Okada S, York DA, Bray GA, Mei J, Erlanson-Albertsson C: Differential inhibition of fat intake in two strains of rat by the peptide enterostatin. Am J Physiol 1992;262:R1111–R1116.
  12. Overmann SR: Dietary self-selection by animals. Psychol Bull 1976;83:218–235.
  13. Smith BK, West DB, York DA: Carbohydrate vs. fat intake: differing patterns of macronutrient selection in two inbred mouse strains. Am J Physiol 1997;272:R357–R362.
  14. Smith, BK, Berthoud H-R, York DA, Bray GA: Differential effects of baseline macronutrient preferences on macronutrient selection after galanin, NPY, and an overnight fast. Peptides 1997;18:207–211.
  15. Shor-Posner G, Ian C, Brennan G, Cohn T, Moy H, Ning A, Leibowitz SF: Self-selecting albino rats exhibit differential preferences for pure macronutrient diets: characterization of three subpopulations. Physiol Behav 1991;50:1187–1195.
  16. Smith BK, Andrews PK, West DB: Macronutrient diet selection in thirteen mouse strains. Am J Physiol 2000;278:R797–R805.
  17. Smith Richards BK,Belton BN, Poole AC, Mancuso JJ,Churchill GA, Li R, Volaufova J, Zuberi A, York B: QTL analysis of self-selected macronutrient diet intake: fat, carbohydrate, and total kilocalories. Physiol Genomics 2002;11:205–217.
  18. Kumar KG, Poole AC, York B, Volaufova J, Zuberi A, Smith Richards BK: Quantitative trait loci for carbohydrate and total energy intake on mouse Chromosome 17: Congenic strain confirmation and candidate gene analyses (Glo1, Glp1r). Am J Physiol 2007;292:R207–R216.
  19. Wakeland E, Morel L, Achey K, Yui M, Longmate J: Speed congenics: a classic technique in the fast lane (relatively speaking). Immunol Today 1997;18:472–477.
  20. Berthoud HR: An overview of neural pathways and networks involved in the control of food intake and selection; in Berthoud HR, Seeley RJ (eds): Neural and Metabolic Control of Macronutrient Intake. Boca Raton, CRC Press, 2000, pp 361–387.
  21. Cupples WA: Physiological regulation of food intake. Am J Physiol 2005;288:R1438–R1443.
  22. Friedman MI, Horn CC, Ji H: Peripheral signals in the control of feeding behavior. Chem Senses 2005;30(suppl 1):i182–i183.
  23. Horn CC, Addis A, Friedman MI: Neural substrate for an integrated metabolic control of feeding behavior. Am J Physiol 1999;276:R113–R119.
  24. Levin BE: Metabolic sensing neurons and the control of energy homeostasis. Physiol Behav 2006;89:486–489.
  25. Smith Richards BK, Belton BN, York B, Volaufova J: Mice bearing Acads mutation display altered postingestive but not 5-s orosensory response to dietary fat. Am J Physiol 2004;286:R311–R319.
  26. Woods SC, Lutz TA, Geary N, Langhans W: Pancreatic signals controlling food intake; insulin, glucagon and amylin. Phil Trans R Soc Lond [B] 2006;361:1219–1235.
  27. Bolstad BM, Irizarry RA, Astrand M, Speed TP: A comparison of normalization methods for high density oligonucleotide array data based on bias and variance. Bioinformatics 2003;19:185–193.
  28. Han LP, Davison LM, Vander Jagt DL: Purification and kinetic study of glyoxalase-I from rat liver, erythrocytes, brain and kidney. Biochim Biophys Acta 1976;445:486–499.
  29. Dong MQ, Chase D, Patikoglou GA, Koelle MR: Multiple RGS proteins alter neural G protein signaling to allow C. elegans to rapidly change behavior when fed. Genes Dev 2000;14:2003–2014.
  30. Donkor J, Sariahmetoglu M, Dewald J, Brindley DN, Reue K: Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns. J Biol Chem 2007;282:3450–3457.
  31. Longo KA, Wright WS, Kang S, Gerin I, Chiang SH, Lucas PC, Opp MR, MacDougald OA: Wnt10b inhibits development of white and brown adipose tissue. J Biol Chem 2004;279:35503–35509.
  32. Yamazaki H, Yanagawa S: Axin and the Axin/Arrow-binding protein DCAP mediate glucose-glycogen metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003;304:229–235.
  33. Whiteman EL, Chen JJ, Birnbaum MJ: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes overexpressing PDGF receptor by a pathway independent of insulin receptor substrates. Endocrinology 2003;144:3811–3820.
  34. Flint J, Valdar W, Shifman S, Mott R: Strategies for mapping and cloning quantitative trait genes in rodents. Nat Rev Genet 2005;6:271–286.
  35. Aitman TJ, Glazier AM, Wallace CA, Cooper LD, Norsworthy PJ, Wahid FN, Al-Majali KM, Trembling PM, Mann CJ, Shoulders CC, Graf D, St Lezin E, Kurtz TW, Kren V, Pravenec M, Ibrahimi A, Abumrad NA, Stanton LW, Scott J: Identification of Cd36 (Fat) as an insulin-resistance gene causing defective fatty acid and glucose metabolism in hypertensive rats. Nat Genet 1999;21:76–83.
  36. Kaput J, Rodriquez RL: Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the postgenomic era. Physiol Genomics 2004;16:166–177.
  37. Lu B, Jiang YJ, Man MQ, Brown B, Elias PM, Feingold KR: Expression and regulation of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases in the epidermis. J Lipid Res 2005;46:2448–2457.
  38. Saito N, Shirai Y: Protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma): function of neuron specific isotype. J Biochem (Tokyo) 2002;132:683–687.
  39. Ankrah NA, Appiah-Opong R: Toxicity of low levels of methylglyoxal: depletion of blood glutathione and adverse effect on glucose tolerance in mice. Toxicol Lett 1999;109:61–67.
  40. Thornalley PJ: Glutathione-dependent detoxification of α-oxoaldehydes by the glyoxalase system: involvement in disease mechanisms and antiproliferative activity of glyoxalase I inhibitors. Chem Biol Interact 1998;111–112:137–151.
  41. Bari L, Atlante A, Guarangnella N, Principata G, Passarella S: D-Lactate transport and metabolism in rat liver mitochondria. Biochem J 2002;365:391–403.
  42. Hovatta I, Tennant RS, Helton R, Marr RA, Singer O, Redwine JM, Ellison JA, Schadt EE, Verma IM, Lockhart DJ, Barlow C: Glyoxalase 1 and glutathione reductase 1 regulate anxiety in mice. Nature 2005;438:662–666.
  43. Thornalley PJ: Unease on the role of glyoxalase 1 in high-anxiety-related behaviour. Trends Mol Med 2006;12:195–199.
  44. Tafti M, Petit B, Chollet D, Neidhart E, de Bilbao F, Kiss JZ, Wood PA, Franken P: Deficiency in short-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation affects theta oscillations during sleep. Nat Genet 2003;34:320–325.
  45. Geisbrecht BV, Liang X, Morrell JC, Schulz H, Gould SJ: The mouse gene PDCR encodes a peroxisomal delta(2), delta(4)-dienoyl-CoA reductase. J Biol Chem 1999;274:25814–25820.
  46. Huang XS, Zhao SP, Hu M, Luo YP: Apolipoprotein M likely extends its anti-atherogenesis via anti-inflammation. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:136–40. Epub 2007 Jan 10.
  47. Smith JD, Bhasin JM, Baglione J, Settle M, Xu Y, Barnard J: Atherosclerosis susceptibility loci identified from a strain intercross of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via a high-density genome scan. Aterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2006;26:597–603.
  48. Taylor BA, Phillips SJ: Obesity QTLs on mouse chromosomes 2 and 17. Genomics 1997;43:249–257.
  49. Aljada A, Friedman J, Ghanim H, Mohanty P, Hofmeyer D, Chaudhuri A, Dandona P: Glucose ingestion induces an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB, a fall in cellular inhibitor kappaB, and an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA by mononuclear cells in healthy human subjects. Metabolism 2006;55:1177–1185.
  50. Taupin D, Podolsky DK: Trefoil factors: initiators of mucosal healing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2003;4:721–732.
  51. Nozaki I, Lunz JG 3rd, Specht S, Park JI, Giraud AS, Murase N, Demetris AJ: Regulation and function of trefoil factor family 3 expression in the biliary tree. Am J Pathol 2004;165:1907–1920.
  52. Brown AC, Olver WI, Donnelly CJ, May ME, Naggert JK, Shaffer DJ, Roopenian DC: Searching QTL by gene expression: analysis of diabesity. BMC Genet 2005;6:12.