Background/Aims: Little is known about risk factors for acute pancreatitis other than gallstones and alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate if smoking or body mass index (BMI) are associated with acute pancreatitis and to determine relative risks (RR) for acute pancreatitis related to smoking, BMI, and alcohol consumption. Methods: From 1974 to 1992, selected birth-year cohorts of residents in Malmö, Sweden (born 1921–1949) were invited to a health-screening investigation including physical examination, blood sampling and a questionnaire. In total, 33,346 individuals participated. Cases of acute pancreatitis were identified from diagnosis registries (n = 179). Incidence rates were calculated in different risk factor categories. A Cox’s analysis revealed RR. Results: Current versus never smoking at baseline was associated with acute pancreatitis (RR 2.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48–3.09) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI and alcohol consumption. This association was stronger in heavy smokers (20–30 cigarettes/day) (RR 3.19, 95% CI 2.03–5.00). Smoking was associated with a RR of 3.57 (95% CI 0.98–13.0) for acute pancreatitis in subjects who reported no alcohol consumption. An increased risk for acute pancreatitis was also found for high versus low risk, self-reported alcohol consumption (RR 2.55, 95% CI 1.59–4.08) and for γ-GT levels in the highest versus the lowest quartile (RR 2.14, 95% CI 1.32–3.49). There was also a weak correlation between BMI and acute pancreatitis. Conclusions: Smoking is associated with the incidence of acute pancreatitis in a dose-response manner.
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