- Cognitive impairment
- Risk factors
- Cohort studies
- Data collection instruments
Background: The objective of this study was to establish a prospective population-based cohort to investigate the prevalence, incidence and risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Methods: The Olmsted County, Minn., population, aged 70–89 years on October 1, 2004, was enumerated using the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Eligible subjects were randomly selected and invited to participate. Participants underwent a comprehensive in-person evaluation including the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, a neurological evaluation and neuropsychological testing. A consensus diagnosis of normal cognition, MCI or dementia was made by a panel using previously published criteria. A subsample of subjects was studied via telephone interview. Results: Four hundred and two subjects with dementia were identified from a detailed review of their medical records but were not contacted. At baseline, we successfully evaluated 703 women aged 70–79 years, 769 women aged 80–89 years, 730 men aged 70–79 years and 517 men aged 80–89 years (total n = 2,719). Among the participants, 2,050 subjects were evaluated in person and 669 via telephone. Conclusions: Strengths of the study are that the subjects were randomly selected from a defined population, the majority of the subjects were examined in person, and MCI was defined using published criteria. Here, we report the design and sampling, participation, baseline measures and sample characteristics.
Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
- Jorm AF, Korten AE, Henderson AS: The prevalence of dementia: a quantitative integration of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1987;76:465–479.
- Kukull WA, Ganguli M: Epidemiology of dementia: concepts and overview. Neurol Clin 2000;18:923–950.
- Fratiglioni L, Rocca WA: Epidemiology of dementia; in Boller F, Cappa S (eds): Handbook of Neuropsychology. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2001, vol 6, pp 193–215.
- Bachman DL, Wolf PA, Linn RT, Knoefel JE, Cobb JL, Belanger AJ, White LR, D’Agostino RB: Incidence of dementia and probable Alzheimer’s disease in a general population: The Framingham Study. Neurology 1993;43:515–519.
- Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Beckett LA, Albert MS, Pilgrim DM, Chown MJ, Funkenstein HH, Evans DA: Age-specific incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in a community population. JAMA 1995;273:1354–1359.
- Petersen RC: Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 2004;256:183–194.
- Melton LJ III: History of the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Mayo Clin Proc 1996;71:266–274.
- Bergstralh EJ, Offord KP: Projected Rochester and Olmsted County Populations for 1981–1995. Technical Report Series No 38. Rochester, Section of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 1988.
- Beard CM, Kokmen E, Offord K, Kurland LT: Is the prevalence of dementia changing? Neurology 1991;41:1911–1914.
- Beard CM, Kokmen E, O’Brien PC, Kurland LT: The prevalence of dementia is changing over time in Rochester, Minnesota. Neurology 1995;45:75–79.
- Kokmen E, Beard CM, Offord KP, Kurland LT: Prevalence of medically diagnosed dementia in a defined United States population: Rochester, Minnesota, January 1, 1975. Neurology 1989;39:773–776.
- Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, DeKosky ST, Becker JT, Fitzpatrick A, Dulberg C, Breitner J, Lyketsos C, Jones B, Kawas C, Carlson M, Kuller LH: Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study: part 1. Arch Neurol 2003;60:1385–1389.
- McMurry M: Minnesota Life Expectancy in 2000. St Paul, Minnesota Planning State Demographic Center, 2002.
- Stampfer MJ, Krauss RM, Ma J, Blanche PJ, Holl LG, Sacks FM, Hennekens CH: A prospective study of triglyceride level, low-density lipoprotein particle diameter, and risk of myocardial infarction. JAMA 1996;276:882–888.
- Desmeules S, Arcand-Bosse JF, Bergeron J, Douville P, Agharazii M: Nonfasting non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is adequate for lipid management in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2005;45:1067–1072.
- Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, Linzer M, deGruy FV 3rd, Hahn SR, Brody D, Johnson JG: Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: the PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA 1994;272:1749–1756.
- Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK: Manual for Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). San Antonio, Psychology Corporation, 2001.
- Beck AT, Steer RA: Beck Anxiety Inventory Manual. San Antonio, Psychological Corporation, 1993.
- Cesari M, Kritchevsky SB, Penninx BW, Nicklas BJ, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, Tylavsky FA, Brach JS, Satterfield S, Bauer DC, Visser M, Rubin SM, Harris TB, Pahor M: Prognostic value of usual gait speed in well-functioning older people – results from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2005;53:1675–1680.
- Morris JC: The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR): current version and scoring rules. Neurology 1993;43:2412–2414.
- Pfeffer RI, Kurosaki TT, Harrah CH Jr, Chance JM, Filos S: Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community. J Gerontol 1982;37:323–329.
- Kokmen E, Smith GE, Petersen RC, Tangalos E, Ivnik RC: The short test of mental status: correlations with standardized psychometric testing. Arch Neurol 1991;48:725–728.
- Rosen WG, Terry RD, Fuld PA, Katzman R, Peck A: Pathological verification of ischemic score in differentiation of dementias. Ann Neurol 1980;7:486–488.
- Hachinski VC, Iliff LD, Zilhka E, Du Boulay GH, McAllister VL, Marshall J, Russell RW, Symon L: Cerebral blood flow in dementia. Arch Neurol 1975;32:632–637.
- American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
- Fahn S, Elton RL, UPDRS Development Committee: Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale; in Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldstein M (eds): Recent Developments in Parkinson’s Disease. Florham Park, MacMillan Healthcare Information, 1987, vol 2, pp 153–163.
- Wechsler DA: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. New York, Psychological Corporation, 1987.
- Wechsler DA: Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. New York, Psychological Corporation, 1987.
- Reitan RM: Validity of the Trail Making Test as an indicator of organic brain damage. Percept Motor Skills 1958;8:271–276.
- Kaplan EF, Goodglass H, Weintraub S: The Boston Naming Test, ed 2. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1982.
- Lucas JA, Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Bohac DL, Tangalos EG, Graff-Radford NR, Petersen RC: Mayo’s Older Americans Normative Studies: category fluency norms. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 1998;20:194–200.
- Ivnik RJ, Malec JF, Smith GE, et al: WAIS- R, WMS-R and AVLT norms for ages 56 through 97. Clin Neuropsychol 1992;6 (suppl):1–104.
- Ivnik RJ, Malec JF, Smith GE, Tangalos EG, Petersen RC: Neuropsychological tests’ normal above age 55: COWAT, BNT, MAE token, WRAT-R Reading, AMNART, STROOP, MT, and JLO. Clin Neuropsychol 1996;10:262–278.
- Ivnik RJ, Smith GE, Lucas JA, Petersen RC, Boeve BF, Kokmen E, Tangalos EG: Testing normal older people three or four times at 1- to 2-year intervals: defining normal variance. Neuropsychology 1999;13:121–127.
- Brandt J, Spencer M, Folstein M: The telephone interview for cognitive status. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1988;1:111–117.
- Welsh KA, Breitner JCS, Magruder-Habib KM: Detection of dementia in the elderly using telephone screening of cognitive status. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1993;6:103–110.
- Plassman BL, Newman TT, Welsh KA, Helms M, Breitner JCS: Properties of the telephone interview for cognitive status: application in epidemiological and longitudinal studies. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1994;7:235–241.
- Crooks VC, Clark L, Petitti DB, Chui H, Chiu V: Validation of multi-stage telephone-based identification of cognitive impairment and dementia. BMC Neurol 2005;5:8.
- Galvin JE, Roe CM, Powlishta KK, Coats MA, Muich SJ, Grant E, Miller JP, Storandt M, Morris JC: The AD8: a brief informant interview to detect dementia. Neurology 2005;65:559–564.
- Galvin JE, Roe CM, Coats MA, Morris JC: Patient’s rating of cognitive ability: using the AD8, a brief informant interview, as a self-rating tool to detect dementia. Arch Neurol 2007;64:725–730.
- Fried LP, Borhani NO, Enright P, Furberg CD, Gardin JM, Kronmal RA, Kuller LH, Manolio TA, Mittelmark MB, Newman A, et al: The Cardiovascular Health Study: design and rationale. Ann Epidemiol 1991;1:263–276.
- ARIC investigators: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study: design and objectives. Am J Epidemiol 1989;129:687–702.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System Survey Questionnaire. Atlanta, US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004.
- St Sauver JL, Hagen PT, Cha SS, Bagniewski SM, Mandrekar JN, Curoe AM, Rodeheffer RJ, Roger VL, Jacobsen SJ: Agreement between patient reports of cardiovascular disease and patient medical records. Mayo Clin Proc 2005;80:203–210.
- Maradit-Kremers H, Nicola PJ, Crowson CS, Ballman KV, Gabriel SE: Cardiovascular death in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum 2005;52:722–732.
- Charlson ME, Pompei P, Ales KL, MacKenzie CR: A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation. J Chron Dis 1987;40:373–383.
- Elias MF, Elias PK, Sullivan LM, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB: Lower cognitive function in the presence of obesity and hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003;27:260–268.
- White L, Petrovitch H, Ross GW, Masaki KH, Abbott RD, Teng EL, Rodriguez BL, Blanchette PL, Havlik RJ, Wergowske G, Chiu D, Foley DJ, Murdaugh C, Curb JD: Prevalence of dementia in older Japanese-American men in Hawaii: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. JAMA 1996;276:955–960.
- De Groot JC, De Leeuw F-E, Oudkerk M, Van Gijn J, Hofman A, Jolles J, Breteler MMB: Cerebral white matter lesions and cognitive function: the Rotterdam Scan Study. Ann Neurol 2000;47:145–151.
- Luchsinger JA, Tang MX, Shea S, Miller J, Green R, Mayeux R: Plasma homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 2004;62:1972–1976.
- Fischer P, Jungwirth S, Zehetmayer S, Weissgram S, Hoenigschnabl S, Gelpi E, Krampla W, Tragl KH: Conversion from subtypes of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer dementia. Neurology 2007;68:288–291.
- Bennett DA, Schneider JA, Buchman AS, Mendes de Leon C, Bienias JL, Wilson RS: The Rush Memory and Aging Project: study design and baseline characteristics of the study cohort. Neuroepidemiology 2005;25:163–175.
- Tell GS, Fried LP, Hermanson B, Manolio TA, Newman AB, Borhani NO: Recruitment of adults 65 years and older as participants in The Cardiovascular Health Study. Ann Epidemiol 1993;3:358–366.
- Ganguli M, Dodge HH, Shen C, DeKosky ST: Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type: an epidemiologic study. Neurology 2004;63:115–121.
- Guo Z, Viitanen M, Fratiglioni L, Winblad B: Low blood pressure and dementia in elderly people: the Kungsholmen project. BMJ 1996;312:805–808.
- Breitner JC, Wyse BW, Anthony JC, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Steffens DC, Norton MC, Tschanz JT, Plassman BL, Meyer MR, Skoog I, Khachaturian A: APOE-ε4 count predicts age when prevalence of AD increases, then declines: the Cache County Study. Neurology 1999;53:321–331.
Dr. Rosebud O. Roberts
Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research
Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW
Rochester, MN 55905 (USA)
Tel. +1 507 284 5656, Fax +1 507 284 1516, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: August 11, 2007
Accepted: November 21, 2007
Published online: February 7, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 12
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 56
Vol. 30, No. 1, Year 2008 (Cover Date: March 2008)
Journal Editor: Feigin, V.L. (Auckland)
ISSN: 0251–5350 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0208 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NED
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.