Myogel, a Novel, Basement Membrane-Rich, Extracellular Matrix Derived from Skeletal Muscle, Is Highly Adipogenic in vivo and in vitroAbberton K.M.a, b · Bortolotto S.K.a, b · Woods A.A.a · Findlay M.a, b · Morrison W.A.a, b · Thompson E.W.a, b · Messina A.a, b
aBernard O’Brien Institute of Microsurgery and bDepartment of Surgery, St. Vincent’s Hospital Campus, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Vic., Australia Cells Tissues Organs 2008;188:347–358 (DOI:10.1159/000121575)
Background/Aims: Biological and synthetic scaffolds play important roles in tissue engineering and are being developed towards human clinical applications. Based on previous work from our laboratory, we propose that extracellular matrices from skeletal muscle could be developed for adipose tissue engineering. Methods: Extracellular matrices (Myogels) extracted from skeletal muscle of various species were assessed using biochemical assays including ELISA and Western blotting. Biofunctionality was assessed using an in vitro differentiation assay and a tissue engineering construct model in the rat. Results: Myogels were successfully extracted from mice, rats, pigs and humans. Myogels contained significant levels of laminin α4- and α2-subunits and collagen I compared to Matrigel™, which contains laminin 1 (α1β1γ1) and collagen IV. Levels of growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor 2 were significantly higher than Matrigel, vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels were significantly lower and all other growth factors were comparable. Myogels reproducibly stimulated adipogenic differentiation of preadipocytes in vitro and the growth of adipose tissue in the rat. Conclusions: We found Myogel induces adipocyte differentiation in vitroand shows strong adipogenic potential in vivo, inducing the growth of well-vascularised adipose tissue. Myogel offers an alternative for current support scaffolds in adipose tissue engineering, allowing the scaling up of animal models towards clinical adipose tissue engineering applications.
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