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Vol. 56, No. 4, 2007
Issue release date: April 2008
Section title: Original Paper
Editor's Choice -- Free Access
Neuropsychobiology 2007;56:216–219
(DOI:10.1159/000122268)

Cerebellar Posterior Superior Vermis and Cognitive Cluster Scores in Drug-Naive Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia

Okugawa G. · Nobuhara K. · Takase K. · Kinoshita T.
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kansai Medical University, Osaka, Japan
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Previously, we performed an MRI study that revealed smaller volumes of the subregions of the cerebellar vermis in men and women with chronic schizophrenia. An issue that arose from that study was whether similar structural changes in the cerebellum are found in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. In the present study, MRI scans were acquired from 14 drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 16 healthy subjects, and used to measure the volumes of their cerebellar subregions. Positive symptom, negative symptom and cognitive cluster scores were attained using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia had reduced volumes of the anterior vermis and posterior superior vermis compared with healthy subjects. We confirmed that there was a volume reduction of the cerebellar vermis in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Smaller volumes of the posterior superior vermis were associated with worse cognitive cluster scores in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Key Words

  • Schizophrenia
  • Vermis, cerebellar
  • Cognitive cluster scores

References

  1. Aylward EH, Reiss A, Barta PE, Tien A, Han W, Lee J, Pearson GD: Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of posterior fossa structures in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:1448–1452.
  2. Joyal CC, Pennanen C, Tiihonen E, Laakso MP, Tiihonen J, Aronen HJ: MRI volumetry of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres in men with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2004;131:115–124.
  3. Mathew RJ, Partain CL: Midsagittal sections of the cerebellar vermis and fourth ventricle obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:970–971.
  4. Nasrallah HA, Schwarzkopf SB, Olson SC, Coffman JA: Perinatal brain injury and cerebellar vermal lobules I-X in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1991;29:567–574.
  5. Nopoulos P, Celley J, Gailis E, Andreasen NC: An MRI study of cerebellar vermis morphology in patients with schizophrenia: evidence in support of the cognitive dysmetria concept. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:703–711.
  6. Rossi A, Stratta P, Mancini F, de Cataldo S, Cassacchia M: Cerebellar vermal size in schizophrenia: a male effect. Biol Psychiatry 1993;33:354–357.
  7. Uematsu M, Kaiya H: Cerebellar vermal size predicts drug response in schizophrenic patients: a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1988;12:837–848.
  8. Mostofsky SH, Mazzocco MM, Aakalu G, Warsofsky IS, Denckla MB, Reiss AL: Decreased cerebellar posterior vermis size in fragile X syndrome: correlation with neurocognitive performance. Neurology 1998;50:121–130.
  9. Okugawa G, Sedvall G, Nordström M, Andreasen N, Pierson R, Magnotta V, Agartz I: Selective reduction of the posterior superior vermis in men with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2002;55:61–67.
  10. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 2000.
  11. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:261–276.
  12. Bell MD, Lysaker H, Milstein RM, Bean-Goulet JL: Concurrent validity of the cognitive component of schizophrenia: relationship of PANSS to neuropsychological assessment. Psychiatry Res 1994;54:51–58.
  13. Andreasen NC, Cohen G, Harris G, Cizadlo T, Parkkinen J, Rezai K, Swayze VW 2nd: Image processing for the study of brain structure and function: problems and programs. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992;4:125–133.
  14. Andreasen NC, Cizadlo T, Harris G, Swayze VW 2nd, O’Leary DS, Cohen G, Ehrhardt J, Yuh WT: Voxel processing techniques for the antemortem study of neuroanatomy and neuropathology using magnetic resonance imaging. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1993;5:121–130.
  15. Harris G, Andreasen NC, Cizadlo T, Bailey JM, Bockholt HJ, Magnotta VA, Arndt S: Improving tissue classification in MRI: a three-dimensional multispectral discriminant analysis method with automated training class selection. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1999;23:144–154.
  16. Agartz I, Okugawa G, Greiz D, Nordström M, Greitz D, Magnotta VA, Sedvall G: Reliability and reproducibility of brain tissue volumetry from segmented MR scans. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;251:255–261.
  17. Okugawa G, Takase K, Nobuhara K, Yoshida T, Minami T, Tamagaki C, Magnotta VA, Andreasen NC, Kinoshita T: Inter- and intraoperator reliability of brain tissue measures using magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003;253:301–306.
  18. Shrout P, Fleiss J: Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull 1979;86:420–429.
  19. Sullivan EV, Deshmukh A, Desmond JE, Mathalon DH, Rosenbloom MJ, Lim KO, Pfefferbaum A: Contribution of alcohol abuse to cerebellar volume deficits in men with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:894–902.
  20. Varnäs K, Okugawa G, Hammarberg A, Nesvåg R, Rimol LM, Franck J, Agartz I: Cerebellar volumes in men with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007;61:326–329.
  21. Okugawa G, Sedvall GC, Agartz I: Smaller cerebellar vermis but not hemisphere volumes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:1614–1617.
  22. DeLisi LE, Sakuma M, Taw W, Kushner M, Hoff AL, Grimson R: Schizophrenia as a chronic active brain process: a study of progressive brain structural change subsequent to the onset of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1997;74:129–140.
  23. Ichimiya T, Okubo Y, Suhara T, Sudo Y: Reduced volume of the cerebellar vermis in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2001;49:20–27.

  

Author Contacts

Gaku Okugawa, MD, PhD
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kansai Medical University
2-3-1 Shinmachi Hirakata
Osaka 573-1191 (Japan)
Tel. +81 72 804 0101, Fax +81 72 804 0166, E-Mail okugawa@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp

  

Article Information

Received: August 5, 2007
Accepted after revision: January 22, 2008
Published online: April 2, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 4
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 23

  

Publication Details

Neuropsychobiology (International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research in Biological Psychiatry, Pharmacopsychiatry, Biological Psychology/Pharmacopsychology and Pharmacoelectroencephalography)

Vol. 56, No. 4, Year 2007 (Cover Date: April 2008)

Journal Editor: Strik W. (Bern)
ISSN: 0302–282X (Print), eISSN: 1423–0224 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NPS


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References

  1. Aylward EH, Reiss A, Barta PE, Tien A, Han W, Lee J, Pearson GD: Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of posterior fossa structures in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1994;151:1448–1452.
  2. Joyal CC, Pennanen C, Tiihonen E, Laakso MP, Tiihonen J, Aronen HJ: MRI volumetry of the vermis and the cerebellar hemispheres in men with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2004;131:115–124.
  3. Mathew RJ, Partain CL: Midsagittal sections of the cerebellar vermis and fourth ventricle obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1985;142:970–971.
  4. Nasrallah HA, Schwarzkopf SB, Olson SC, Coffman JA: Perinatal brain injury and cerebellar vermal lobules I-X in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 1991;29:567–574.
  5. Nopoulos P, Celley J, Gailis E, Andreasen NC: An MRI study of cerebellar vermis morphology in patients with schizophrenia: evidence in support of the cognitive dysmetria concept. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:703–711.
  6. Rossi A, Stratta P, Mancini F, de Cataldo S, Cassacchia M: Cerebellar vermal size in schizophrenia: a male effect. Biol Psychiatry 1993;33:354–357.
  7. Uematsu M, Kaiya H: Cerebellar vermal size predicts drug response in schizophrenic patients: a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1988;12:837–848.
  8. Mostofsky SH, Mazzocco MM, Aakalu G, Warsofsky IS, Denckla MB, Reiss AL: Decreased cerebellar posterior vermis size in fragile X syndrome: correlation with neurocognitive performance. Neurology 1998;50:121–130.
  9. Okugawa G, Sedvall G, Nordström M, Andreasen N, Pierson R, Magnotta V, Agartz I: Selective reduction of the posterior superior vermis in men with chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2002;55:61–67.
  10. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, ed 4. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 2000.
  11. Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 1987;13:261–276.
  12. Bell MD, Lysaker H, Milstein RM, Bean-Goulet JL: Concurrent validity of the cognitive component of schizophrenia: relationship of PANSS to neuropsychological assessment. Psychiatry Res 1994;54:51–58.
  13. Andreasen NC, Cohen G, Harris G, Cizadlo T, Parkkinen J, Rezai K, Swayze VW 2nd: Image processing for the study of brain structure and function: problems and programs. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1992;4:125–133.
  14. Andreasen NC, Cizadlo T, Harris G, Swayze VW 2nd, O’Leary DS, Cohen G, Ehrhardt J, Yuh WT: Voxel processing techniques for the antemortem study of neuroanatomy and neuropathology using magnetic resonance imaging. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1993;5:121–130.
  15. Harris G, Andreasen NC, Cizadlo T, Bailey JM, Bockholt HJ, Magnotta VA, Arndt S: Improving tissue classification in MRI: a three-dimensional multispectral discriminant analysis method with automated training class selection. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1999;23:144–154.
  16. Agartz I, Okugawa G, Greiz D, Nordström M, Greitz D, Magnotta VA, Sedvall G: Reliability and reproducibility of brain tissue volumetry from segmented MR scans. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2001;251:255–261.
  17. Okugawa G, Takase K, Nobuhara K, Yoshida T, Minami T, Tamagaki C, Magnotta VA, Andreasen NC, Kinoshita T: Inter- and intraoperator reliability of brain tissue measures using magnetic resonance imaging. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2003;253:301–306.
  18. Shrout P, Fleiss J: Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull 1979;86:420–429.
  19. Sullivan EV, Deshmukh A, Desmond JE, Mathalon DH, Rosenbloom MJ, Lim KO, Pfefferbaum A: Contribution of alcohol abuse to cerebellar volume deficits in men with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:894–902.
  20. Varnäs K, Okugawa G, Hammarberg A, Nesvåg R, Rimol LM, Franck J, Agartz I: Cerebellar volumes in men with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007;61:326–329.
  21. Okugawa G, Sedvall GC, Agartz I: Smaller cerebellar vermis but not hemisphere volumes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:1614–1617.
  22. DeLisi LE, Sakuma M, Taw W, Kushner M, Hoff AL, Grimson R: Schizophrenia as a chronic active brain process: a study of progressive brain structural change subsequent to the onset of schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 1997;74:129–140.
  23. Ichimiya T, Okubo Y, Suhara T, Sudo Y: Reduced volume of the cerebellar vermis in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 2001;49:20–27.