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Vol. 30, No. 3, 2008
Issue release date: May 2008
Free Access
Neuroepidemiology 2008;30:161–166
(DOI:10.1159/000122333)

Dietary Epidemiology of Essential Tremor: Meat Consumption and Meat Cooking Practices

Louis E.D.a-d · Keating G.A.e · Bogen K.T.e · Rios E.a · Pellegrino K.M.a · Factor-Litvak P.d
aG.H. Sergievsky Center, bDepartment of Neurology, and cTaub Institute for Research on Alzheimer’s Disease and the Aging Brain, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, and dDepartment of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., eEnergy and Environmental Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Livermore, Calif., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background/Aim: Harmane [1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole] is a tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in essential tremor (ET) patients for unclear reasons. Potential mechanisms include increased dietary harmane intake (especially through well-cooked meat) or genetic-metabolic factors. We tested the hypothesis that meat consumption and level of meat doneness are higher in ET cases than in controls. Methods: Detailed data were collected using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meat Questionnaire. Results: Total current meat consumption was greater in men with than without ET (135.3 ± 71.1 vs. 110.6 ± 80.4 g/day, p = 0.03) but not in women with versus without ET (80.6 ± 50.0 vs. 79.3 ± 51.0 g/day, p = 0.76). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males, higher total current meat consumption was associated with ET (OR = 1.006, p = 0.04, i.e., with 10 additional g/day of meat, odds of ET increased by 6%). Male cases had higher odds of being in the highest than lowest quartile of total current meat consumption (adjusted OR = 21.36, p = 0.001). Meat doneness level was similar in cases and controls. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a dietary difference between male ET cases and male controls. The etiological ramifications of these results warrant additional investigation.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Dietary epidemiology, essential tremor
  • Essential tremor
  • Toxin
  • Harmane
  • Diet, tremor
  • Metabolism, meat

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background/Aim: Harmane [1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole] is a tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in essential tremor (ET) patients for unclear reasons. Potential mechanisms include increased dietary harmane intake (especially through well-cooked meat) or genetic-metabolic factors. We tested the hypothesis that meat consumption and level of meat doneness are higher in ET cases than in controls. Methods: Detailed data were collected using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meat Questionnaire. Results: Total current meat consumption was greater in men with than without ET (135.3 ± 71.1 vs. 110.6 ± 80.4 g/day, p = 0.03) but not in women with versus without ET (80.6 ± 50.0 vs. 79.3 ± 51.0 g/day, p = 0.76). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males, higher total current meat consumption was associated with ET (OR = 1.006, p = 0.04, i.e., with 10 additional g/day of meat, odds of ET increased by 6%). Male cases had higher odds of being in the highest than lowest quartile of total current meat consumption (adjusted OR = 21.36, p = 0.001). Meat doneness level was similar in cases and controls. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a dietary difference between male ET cases and male controls. The etiological ramifications of these results warrant additional investigation.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Benito-Leon J, Bermejo-Pareja F, Morales JM, Vega S, Molina JA: Prevalence of essential tremor in three elderly populations of central Spain. Mov Disord 2003;18:389–394.
  2. Dogu O, Sevim S, Camdeviren H, Sasmaz T, Bugdayci R, Aral M, Kaleagasi H, Un S, Louis ED: Prevalence of essential tremor: door-to-door neurological exams in Mersin Province, Turkey. Neurology 2003;61:1804–1806.
  3. Benito-Leon J, Bermejo-Pareja F, Louis ED: Incidence of essential tremor in three elderly populations of central Spain. Neurology 2005;64:1721–1725.
  4. Higgins JJ, Loveless JM, Jankovic J, Patel PI: Evidence that a gene for essential tremor maps to chromosome 2p in four families. Mov Disord 1998;13:972–977.
  5. Louis ED: Etiology of essential tremor: should we be searching for environmental causes? Mov Disord 2001;16:822–829.
  6. De Meester C: Genotoxic potential of beta-carbolines: a review. Mutat Res 1995;339:139–153.
  7. Anderson NJ, Tyacke RJ, Husbands SM, Nutt DJ, Hudson AL, Robinson ESJ: In vitro and ex vivo distribution of [3H]harmane, an endogenous β-carboline, in rat brain. Neuropharmacology 2006;50:269–276.
  8. Martin FC, Thu Le A, Handforth A: Harmaline-induced tremor as a potential preclinical screening method for essential tremor medications. Mov Disord 2005;20:298–305.
  9. Handforth A, Krahl SE: Suppression of harmaline-induced tremor in rats by vagus nerve stimulation. Mov Disord 2001;16:84–88.
  10. O’Hearn E, Molliver ME: Degeneration of Purkinje cells in parasagittal zones of the cerebellar vermis after treatment with ibogaine or harmaline. Neuroscience 1993;55:303–310.
  11. Louis ED, Zheng W, Jurewicz EC, Watner D, Chen J, Factor-Litvak P, Parides M: Elevation of blood β-carboline alkaloids in essential tremor. Neurology 2002;59:1940–1944.
  12. Louis ED, Zheng W, Applegate L, Shi L, Factor-Litvak P: Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor. Neurology 2005;65:391–396.
  13. Louis ED, Applegate L, Graziano J, Parides M, Slavkovich V, Bhat H: Interaction between blood lead concentration and delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase gene polymorphisms increases the odds of essential tremor. Mov Disord 2005;20:1170–1177.
  14. Keating GA, Bogen KT, Chan JM: Development of a meat frequency questionnaire for use in diet and cancer studies. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107:1356–1362.
  15. Bogen KT, Keating GA 2nd, Chan JM, Paine LJ, Simms EL, Nelson DO, Holly EA: Highly elevated PSA and dietary PhIP intake in a prospective clinic-based study among African Americans. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2007;10:261–269.
  16. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE: Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:51–65.
  17. Louis ED, Ford B, Lee H, Andrews H: Does a screening questionnaire for essential tremor agree with the physician’s examination? Neurology 1998;50:1351–1357.
  18. Prakash KM, Fook-Choong S, Yuen Y, Tan EK: Exploring the relationship between caffeine intake and essential tremor. J Neurol Sci 2006;251:98–101.
  19. Louis ED, Jurewicz EC, Parides M: Case-control study of nutritional antioxidant intake in essential tremor. Neuroepidemiology 2005;24:203–208.
  20. Louis ED, Ford B, Frucht S: Factors associated with increased risk of head tremor in essential tremor: a community-based study in northern Manhattan. Mov Disord 2003;18:432–436.
  21. Louis ED, Dure L, Pullman S: Essential tremor in childhood. Mov Disord 2001;16:921–923.
  22. Tan EK, Lum SY, Prakash KM: Clinical features of childhood onset essential tremor. Eur J Neurol 2006;13:1302–1305.
  23. Mancini ML, Stracci F, Tambasco N, Sarchielli P, Rossi A, Calabresi P: Prevalence of essential tremor in the territory of Lake Trasimeno, Italy: results of a population-based study. Mov Disord 2007;22:540–545.
  24. Chen H, O’Reilly E, McCullough ML, Rodriguez C, Schwarzschild MA, Calle EE, Thun MJ, Ascherio A: Consumption of dairy products and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:998–1006.
  25. Byers TE, Rosenthal RI, Marshall JR, Rzepka TF, Cummings KM, Graham S: Dietary history from the distant past: a methodologic study. Nutr Cancer 1983;5:69–77.
  26. Thompson FE, Lamphiear DE, Metzner HL, Hawthorne VM, Oh MS: Reproducibility of reports of frequency of food use in the Tecumseh Diet Methodology Study. Am J Epidemiol 1987;125:658–671.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Elan Louis
Unit 198, Neurological Institute
710 West 168th Street
New York, NY 10032 (USA)
Tel. +1 212 305 9194, Fax +1 212 305 1304, E-Mail edl2@columbia.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: September 26, 2007
Accepted: January 23, 2008
Published online: April 2, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 26


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Neuroepidemiology

Vol. 30, No. 3, Year 2008 (Cover Date: May 2008)

Journal Editor: Feigin V.L. (Auckland)
ISSN: 0251–5350 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0208 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NED


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Background/Aim: Harmane [1-methyl-9H-pyrido(3,4-b)indole] is a tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations are elevated in essential tremor (ET) patients for unclear reasons. Potential mechanisms include increased dietary harmane intake (especially through well-cooked meat) or genetic-metabolic factors. We tested the hypothesis that meat consumption and level of meat doneness are higher in ET cases than in controls. Methods: Detailed data were collected using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Meat Questionnaire. Results: Total current meat consumption was greater in men with than without ET (135.3 ± 71.1 vs. 110.6 ± 80.4 g/day, p = 0.03) but not in women with versus without ET (80.6 ± 50.0 vs. 79.3 ± 51.0 g/day, p = 0.76). In an adjusted logistic regression analysis in males, higher total current meat consumption was associated with ET (OR = 1.006, p = 0.04, i.e., with 10 additional g/day of meat, odds of ET increased by 6%). Male cases had higher odds of being in the highest than lowest quartile of total current meat consumption (adjusted OR = 21.36, p = 0.001). Meat doneness level was similar in cases and controls. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a dietary difference between male ET cases and male controls. The etiological ramifications of these results warrant additional investigation.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Elan Louis
Unit 198, Neurological Institute
710 West 168th Street
New York, NY 10032 (USA)
Tel. +1 212 305 9194, Fax +1 212 305 1304, E-Mail edl2@columbia.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: September 26, 2007
Accepted: January 23, 2008
Published online: April 2, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 26


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Neuroepidemiology

Vol. 30, No. 3, Year 2008 (Cover Date: May 2008)

Journal Editor: Feigin V.L. (Auckland)
ISSN: 0251–5350 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0208 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NED


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Benito-Leon J, Bermejo-Pareja F, Morales JM, Vega S, Molina JA: Prevalence of essential tremor in three elderly populations of central Spain. Mov Disord 2003;18:389–394.
  2. Dogu O, Sevim S, Camdeviren H, Sasmaz T, Bugdayci R, Aral M, Kaleagasi H, Un S, Louis ED: Prevalence of essential tremor: door-to-door neurological exams in Mersin Province, Turkey. Neurology 2003;61:1804–1806.
  3. Benito-Leon J, Bermejo-Pareja F, Louis ED: Incidence of essential tremor in three elderly populations of central Spain. Neurology 2005;64:1721–1725.
  4. Higgins JJ, Loveless JM, Jankovic J, Patel PI: Evidence that a gene for essential tremor maps to chromosome 2p in four families. Mov Disord 1998;13:972–977.
  5. Louis ED: Etiology of essential tremor: should we be searching for environmental causes? Mov Disord 2001;16:822–829.
  6. De Meester C: Genotoxic potential of beta-carbolines: a review. Mutat Res 1995;339:139–153.
  7. Anderson NJ, Tyacke RJ, Husbands SM, Nutt DJ, Hudson AL, Robinson ESJ: In vitro and ex vivo distribution of [3H]harmane, an endogenous β-carboline, in rat brain. Neuropharmacology 2006;50:269–276.
  8. Martin FC, Thu Le A, Handforth A: Harmaline-induced tremor as a potential preclinical screening method for essential tremor medications. Mov Disord 2005;20:298–305.
  9. Handforth A, Krahl SE: Suppression of harmaline-induced tremor in rats by vagus nerve stimulation. Mov Disord 2001;16:84–88.
  10. O’Hearn E, Molliver ME: Degeneration of Purkinje cells in parasagittal zones of the cerebellar vermis after treatment with ibogaine or harmaline. Neuroscience 1993;55:303–310.
  11. Louis ED, Zheng W, Jurewicz EC, Watner D, Chen J, Factor-Litvak P, Parides M: Elevation of blood β-carboline alkaloids in essential tremor. Neurology 2002;59:1940–1944.
  12. Louis ED, Zheng W, Applegate L, Shi L, Factor-Litvak P: Blood harmane concentrations and dietary protein consumption in essential tremor. Neurology 2005;65:391–396.
  13. Louis ED, Applegate L, Graziano J, Parides M, Slavkovich V, Bhat H: Interaction between blood lead concentration and delta-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase gene polymorphisms increases the odds of essential tremor. Mov Disord 2005;20:1170–1177.
  14. Keating GA, Bogen KT, Chan JM: Development of a meat frequency questionnaire for use in diet and cancer studies. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107:1356–1362.
  15. Bogen KT, Keating GA 2nd, Chan JM, Paine LJ, Simms EL, Nelson DO, Holly EA: Highly elevated PSA and dietary PhIP intake in a prospective clinic-based study among African Americans. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2007;10:261–269.
  16. Willett WC, Sampson L, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Bain C, Witschi J, Hennekens CH, Speizer FE: Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol 1985;122:51–65.
  17. Louis ED, Ford B, Lee H, Andrews H: Does a screening questionnaire for essential tremor agree with the physician’s examination? Neurology 1998;50:1351–1357.
  18. Prakash KM, Fook-Choong S, Yuen Y, Tan EK: Exploring the relationship between caffeine intake and essential tremor. J Neurol Sci 2006;251:98–101.
  19. Louis ED, Jurewicz EC, Parides M: Case-control study of nutritional antioxidant intake in essential tremor. Neuroepidemiology 2005;24:203–208.
  20. Louis ED, Ford B, Frucht S: Factors associated with increased risk of head tremor in essential tremor: a community-based study in northern Manhattan. Mov Disord 2003;18:432–436.
  21. Louis ED, Dure L, Pullman S: Essential tremor in childhood. Mov Disord 2001;16:921–923.
  22. Tan EK, Lum SY, Prakash KM: Clinical features of childhood onset essential tremor. Eur J Neurol 2006;13:1302–1305.
  23. Mancini ML, Stracci F, Tambasco N, Sarchielli P, Rossi A, Calabresi P: Prevalence of essential tremor in the territory of Lake Trasimeno, Italy: results of a population-based study. Mov Disord 2007;22:540–545.
  24. Chen H, O’Reilly E, McCullough ML, Rodriguez C, Schwarzschild MA, Calle EE, Thun MJ, Ascherio A: Consumption of dairy products and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Am J Epidemiol 2007;165:998–1006.
  25. Byers TE, Rosenthal RI, Marshall JR, Rzepka TF, Cummings KM, Graham S: Dietary history from the distant past: a methodologic study. Nutr Cancer 1983;5:69–77.
  26. Thompson FE, Lamphiear DE, Metzner HL, Hawthorne VM, Oh MS: Reproducibility of reports of frequency of food use in the Tecumseh Diet Methodology Study. Am J Epidemiol 1987;125:658–671.