Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 68, No. 2, 1999
Issue release date: March–April 1999
Psychother Psychosom 1999;68:76–81
(DOI:10.1159/000012316)

Suicide Risk and Coping Styles in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Patients

Amir M. · Kaplan Z. · Efroni R. · Kotler M.
aDepartment of Behavioral Sciences and Department of Social Work, and bBeer-Sheva Mental Health Center and Division of Psychiatry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

Background: Suicide and suicidal behavior have been found to be increased among posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. The present study examined suicide risk and Plutchik’s coping styles in PTSD patients. Method: 47 PTSD patients were compared with 42 patients with mixed non-PTSD anxiety disorders and 50 healthy control subjects, matched for age and gender, on a measure of suicide risk. Results: The PTSD patients scored significantly higher than the two control groups on the suicide risk measure. Furthermore, in the PTSD group, suicide risk was significantly negatively correlated with the coping mechanisms of mapping, minimization and replacement and positively correlated with the coping style of suppression. Furthermore, the coping styles significantly explained the variance of the suicide risk measure for all three groups. Conclusions: The cognitive map of PTSD patients highly resembles other populations with high suicide risk. Clinicians treating victims of traumatic events should focus on problem-solving therapies in order to help these patients deal less rigidly with everyday stresses and by this decrease the suicide risk.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. US House of Representatives, Committee on Veterans Affairs: Presidential Review Memorandum on Vietnam-Era Veterans: House Report 38, Oct 10, 1978. Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1978.
  2. Center for Disease Control: Postservice mortality among Vietnam veterans. JAMA 1987;257:790–795.
  3. Golomb D: Symbolic expression in posttraumatic stress disorder: Vietnam combat veterans in art therapy. Arts Psychother 1985;12:1–12.
  4. Pollock DA, Rhodes S, Boyle CA, Decoufle P, McGee DL: Estimating the number of suicides among Vietnam Veterans. Am J Psychiatry 1990;147:772–776.
  5. Kramer TL, Lindy JD, Green BL, Grace MC, Leonard AC: The comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidality in Vietnam Veterans. Suicide Life Threat 1994;24:58–67.
  6. Bullman T, Kang H: Posttraumatic stress disorder and the risk of traumatic deaths among Vietnam Veterans. J Nerv Ment Dis 1994;182:604–610.

    External Resources

  7. Fontana A, Rosenheck R, Brett E: War zone traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. J Nerv Ment Dis 1992;180:748–755.
  8. Bleich A, Koslowsky M, Dolev A, Lerer B: Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. An analysis of comorbidity. Br J Psychiatry 1997;170:479–482.
  9. Arora RC, Meltzer HY: Serotonergic measures in the brains of suicide victims: 5-HT2 binding sites in the frontal cortex of suicide victims and control subjects. Am J Psychiatry 1989;146:730–736.
  10. Van der Kolk BA, Dryfuss D, Michaels M, Shera D, Berkowitz B, Fisler R, Saxe G: Fluoxetine in posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1994;55:517–522.
  11. Orbach I: Dissociation, physical pain and suicide: A hypothesis. Suicide Life Threat 1994;24:68–79.
  12. Baumeister RF: Suicide as escape from self. Psych Rev 1990;97:90–113.
  13. Adams DM, Lehnert KL: Prolonged trauma and subsequent suicidal behavior: Child abuse and combat trauma reviewed: J Trauma Stress 1997;10:619–634.
  14. Fleming R, Baum A, Singer JE: Toward an intergrative approach to the study of stress. J Pers Soc Psychol 1984;46:939–949.
  15. Lazarus RS, Folkman S (eds): Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York, Springer, 1984, chap 2, pp 22–54.
  16. Billings AG, Moos RH: The role of coping responses and social resources in attenuating the stress of life events. J Behav Med 1981;4:139–157.
  17. Foa EB, Stekette G, Rothbaum BO: Behavioral/cognitive conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behav Ther 1989;20:155–176.
  18. Horesh N, Rolnick T, Iancu I, Dannon P, Lepkifker E, Apter A, Kotler M: Coping styles and suicide risk. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1996;93:489–493.
  19. Solomon Z, Mikulincer M, Flum H: Negative life events, coping responses, and combat-related psychopathology: A prospective study. J Abnorm Psychol 1988;97:302–307.
  20. Nezu AM, Carnevale GJ: Interpersonal problem solving and coping reactions of Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 1987;96:155–157.
  21. Blake DD, Cook JD, Keane TM: Post-traumatic stress disorder and coping in veterans who are seeking medical treatment. J Clin Psychol 1992;48:695–704.
  22. Plutchik R: Measureing emotions and their derivatives; in Plutchik R, Kellerman H (eds): The Measurement of Emotions. New York, Academic Press, 1989, pp 1–35.
  23. Kotler M, Finkelstein G, Molcho A, Botsis AJ, Plutchik R, Brown SL, van Praag HM: Correlates of suicide and violence risk in an inpatient population: Coping styles and social support. Psychiatry Res 1993;47:281–290.
  24. Josepho SA, Plutchik R: Stress, coping and suicide risk in psychiatric inpatinets. Suicide Life Threat 1994;24:48–57.
  25. Buckley P, Conte HR, Plutchik R, Wild KV, Karasu TB: Psychodynamic variables as predictors of psychotherapy outcome. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:742–748.

    External Resources

  26. Conte HR, Plutchik R, Picard S, Galante M, Jacoby J: Sex differences in personality traits and coping styles of hospitalized alcoholics. J Stud Alcohol 1991;52:26–32.

    External Resources

  27. Rim Y: Sense of humor and coping styles. Pers Individ Differ 1988;9:559–564.

    External Resources

  28. Rim Y: Optimism and coping styles. Pers Individ Differ 1990;11:89–90.

    External Resources

  29. Rim Y: Happiness and coping styles. Pers Individ Differ 1993;14:617–618.

    External Resources

  30. Horesh N, Rolnik T, Iancu I, Dannon P, Lepkifker E, Apter A, Kotler M: Anger, impulsivity and suicide risk. Psychother Psychosom 1997;66:92–96.
  31. Plutchik R, van Praag HM: Psychological correlates of suicide and violence risk; in van Praag HM, Plutchik R, Apter A (eds): Violence and Suicidality: Perspectives in Clinical and Psychobiological Research. New York, Brunner/Mazel, 1990.
  32. Amir M, Kaplan Z, Efroni R, Levine Y, Benjamin Y, Kotler M: Coping styles in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Pers Individ Differ 1997;23:399–405.
  33. Lipkin JO, Blank AS, Parson ER, et al: Vietnam Veterans and posttraumatic stress disorder. Hosp Community Psychiatry 1982;33:908–912.

    External Resources

  34. Kolb LC: Post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam Veterans (editorial). N Engl J Med 1986;314:641–642.

    External Resources

  35. Hendin H, Hass AP: Suicide and guilt as manifestations of PTSD in Vietnam Combat Veterans. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:586–591.

    External Resources

  36. Hearst N, Neuman TB, Hulley SB: Delayed effect of the military draft on mortality: A randomized natural experiment. N Engl J Med 1986;314:620–624.

    External Resources

  37. Botsis AJH, Plutchik R, Kotler M, van Praag HM: Parental loss and family violence as correlates of suicide and violence risk. Suicide Life Threat 1995;25:253–260.

    External Resources

  38. van der Kolk BA, Perry C, Herman JL: Childhood origin of self-destructive behavior. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:1665–1671.
  39. Stenager EN, Koch-Henriksen N, Stenager E: Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis. Psychother Psychosom 1996;65:86–90.
  40. Horowitz M, Wilner N, Kaltreider W, Alvarez W: Signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1980;37:85–92.

    External Resources

  41. McFarlane AC, Papay P: Multiple diagnosis in posttraumatic stress disorder in the victims of a natural disaster. J Nerv Ment Dis 1992;180:498–504.
  42. Herman JL, van der Kolk BA: Traumatic origins of borderline personality disorder; in van der Kolk BA (ed): Psychological Trauma. Washington, American Psychiatric Press, 1987.
  43. Foy DW: Introduction and description of the disorder; in Foy DW (ed): Treating PTSD: Cognitive-Behavioral Strategies. New York, Guilford, 1992, pp 1–12.
  44. Shalev AY: Stress versus traumatic stress: From acute homeostasis reactions to chronic psychopathology; in van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, Weisaeth L (eds): Traumatic Stress – The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. New York, Guilford, 1996, pp 77–101.
  45. Post RM, Weiss SRB, George MS: Sensitization and kindling components of PTSD. 147th Annu Meet Am Psychiatr Org, Philadelphia, May 1994.
  46. Botsis AJ, Soldatos CR, Liossi A, Stefanis CN: Suicide and violence risk. I. Relationship to coping styles. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1994;89:92–96.
  47. Shneidman E: Voices of Death. New York, Harper & Row, 1982.
  48. Hartman WL, Clark ME, Morgan MK, Dunn VK, Fine AD, Perry GG, Winsch DL: Rorschach structure of a hospitalized sample of Vietnam veterans with PTSD. J Pers Assess 1990;54:149–159.

    External Resources

  49. Kaser-Boyd N: Rorschachs of women who commit homicide. J Pers Assess 1993;60:458–470.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50