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Vol. 69, No. 1, 2000
Issue release date: January–February 2000
Section title: Regular Article
Psychother Psychosom 2000;69:19–26
(DOI:10.1159/000012362)

Psychiatric and Medical Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Women

Gruber A.J. · Pope Jr. H.G.
Biological Psychiatry Laboratory, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Mass., and the Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Regular Article

Published online: 12/10/1999

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS

Abstract

Background: Although numerous studies have documented the psychiatric and physiological effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in males, virtually no studies have investigated the effects of illicit AAS use in women. Methods: We performed psychiatric and medical evaluations of 75 dedicated women athletes, recruited by advertisement primarily from gymnasiums in the Boston, Mass., area. Results: Twenty-five (33%) of the women reported current or past AAS use. Users were more muscular than nonusers and reported use of many other ‘ergogenic’ (performance-enhancing) drugs in addition to AAS. Some described a frank syndrome of ergogenic polysubstance dependence, often with significant morbidity. Fourteen (56%) of the users reported hypomanic symptoms during AAS use and 10 (40%) reported depressive symptoms during AAS withdrawal, but none met full DSM-IV criteria for a hypomanic or major depressive episode. Nineteen (76%) users reported at least one adverse medical effect associated with AAS use. Perhaps the most interesting findings were several unusual psychiatric syndromes reported by both the AAS users and nonusers. These included rigid dietary practices (which we have termed ‘eating disorder, bodybuilder type’), nontraditional gender roles and chronic dissatisfaction and preoccupation with their physiques (a syndrome which we have termed ‘muscle dysmorphia’). Conclusions: Dedicated women athletes exhibit not only AAS abuse, but use of many other ergogenic drugs, sometimes associated with significant morbidity. In addition, these athletes frequently display several psychiatric syndromes which have not previously been well described.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Regular Article

Published online: 12/10/1999

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 5

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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