Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 75, No. 3, 2008
Issue release date: June 2008
Section title: Original Paper
Pathobiology 2008;75:156–170

Comparative Efficacy of Two Microdoses of a Potentized Homeopathic Drug, Arsenicum Album, to Ameliorate Toxicity Induced by Repeated Sublethal Injections of Arsenic Trioxide in Mice

Banerjee P.a · Bhattacharyya S.S.a · Pathak S.a · Naoual B.b · Belon P.b · Khuda-Bukhsh A.R.a
aCytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India; bBoiron Lab, Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France
email Corresponding Author

Anisur R. Khuda-Bukhsh

Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani

Kalyani, West Bengal 741235 (India)

Tel. +91 33 2582 8768, Fax +91 33 2582 8282, E-Mail


  1. Rahman M, Tondel M, Ahmad SA: Hypertension and arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Hypertension 1999;33:74–78.
  2. Engel RR, Smith AH: Arsenic in drinking water and mortality from vascular disease: an ecologic analysis in 30 counties in the United States. Arch Environ Health 1994;49:418–427.
  3. Wu MM, Kuo TL, Hwang YH, Chen CJ: Dose-response relation between arsenic concentration in well water and mortality from cancers and vascular diseases. Am J Epidemiol 1989;130:1123–1132.
  4. Hu H: Exposure to metals. Prim Care 2000;27:983–996.
  5. Chen CJ, Wang CJ: Ecological correlation between arsenic level in well water and age-adjusted mortality from malignant neoplasms. Cancer Res 1990;50:5470–5474.
  6. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Inorganic Arsenic Compounds Other than Arsine. Health and Safety Guide No. 70. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1992.
  7. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria Document 224: Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001.
  8. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Summaries and Evaluations: Arsenic and Arsenic Compounds. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1987.
  9. Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs, Environment Agency: Contaminants in Soil: Collation of Toxicological Data and Intake Values for Humans. Arsenic. Bristol, Environment Agency, 2002.
  10. Tchounwou PB, Wilson BA, Ishaque A: Important considerations in the development of public health advisories for arsenic and arsenic containing compounds in drinking water. Rev Environ Health 1999;14:1–19.
    External Resources
  11. National Academy of Sciences: Arsenic. Washington, National Academy of Sciences, 1977.
  12. Overall evaluation of carcinogenicity: an update of IARC monographs. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 1989;47:1–42.
    External Resources
  13. Mitra K, Kundu SN, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (arsenicum album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: I. On the rate of accumulation of arsenic in certain vital organs. Complement Ther Med 1998;6:178–184.
    External Resources
  14. Mitra K, Kundu SN, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (arsenicum album-30) in reducing toxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: II. On alterations of body weight, tissue weight and total protein. Complement Ther Med 1999;7:24–34.
  15. Kundu SN, Mitra K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (arsenicum album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: III. Enzymatic changes and recovery of tissue damage in liver. Complement Ther Med 2000;8:76–81.
  16. Kundu SN, Mitra K, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (arsenicum album-30) in reducing cytotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: IV. Pathological changes, protein profiles and content of DNA and RNA. Complement Ther Med 2000;8:157–175.
  17. Datta S, Mallick P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Efficacy of a potentized homeopathic drug (arsenicum album-30) in reducing genotoxic effects produced by arsenic trioxide in mice: comparative studies of pre-, post- and combined pre- and post-oral administration and comparative efficacy of two microdoses. Complement Ther Med 1999;7:62–75.
  18. Mallick P, Chakrabarti Mallick J, Guha B, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Ameliorating effect of microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, arsenicum album, on arsenic induced toxicity in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 2003;3:1–19.
  19. Pathak S, Das JK, Biswas SJ, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Mol Cell Biochem 2006;258:121–131.
    External Resources
  20. Biswas SJ, Pathak S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Assessment of the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of an antiepileptic drug phenobarbital, in mice: a time course study. Mutat Res 2004;563:1–11.
  21. Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Choudhury SC, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Paul S, Banerjee A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Supportive evidence for the anticancerous potential of alternative medicine against hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Forsch Komplement Med (2006) 2007;14:148–156.
  22. Billings PC, Habres JM, Liao DC, Tuttle SW: Human fibroblasts contain a proteolytic activity, which is inhibited by the Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Cancer Res 1991;51:5539–5543.
  23. Locke J: The determination of eight elements in human liver tissue by flame atomic absorption spectrometry in sulphuric acid solution. Anal Chem Acta 1979;104:225–231.
  24. Nurenberg WH: Voltametric trace analysis in ecological chemistry of toxic metals. Pure Appl Chem 1982;54:853–878.
    External Resources
  25. Fisher RA, Yates F: Statistical Tables for Biological, Agricultural and Medical Research. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, 1963.
  26. Pi JB, Yamauchi H, Kumagai Y: Evidence for induction of oxidative stress caused by chronic exposure of Chinese residents to arsenic contained in drinking water. Environ Health Perspect2002;110:331–336.
  27. Flora SJS: Arsenic-induced oxidative stress and its reversibility following combined administration of N-acetylcysteine and meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1999;26:865–869.
  28. Maiti S, Chatterjee AK: Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency. Arch Toxicol 2001;75:531–537.
  29. Guha Mazumder DN, Das Gupta J, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S, Chattopadhaya N, Chakraborti D: Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage; in Aberthy CO, Calderon RL, Chappel WR (eds): Arsenic: Exposure and Health Effects. London, Chapman and Hall, 1997, pp 113–123.
  30. Sternlicht MD, Werb Z: How matrix metalloproteases regulate cell behaviour. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2001;17:463–516.
  31. Liotta LA, Steeg PS, Stetler-Stevenson WG: Cancer metastasis and angiogenesis: an imbalance of positive and negative regulation. Cell 1991;64:327–336.
  32. Matrisian LM: Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodeling (review). Trends Genet 1990;6:121–125.
  33. Woessner JF Jr: Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in connective tissue remodeling. FASEB J 1991;5:2145–2154.
  34. Lee AY, Akers KT, Collier M, Li L, Eisen AZ, Seltzer JL: Intracellular activation of gelatinase A (72-kDa type IV collagenase) by normal fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:4424–4429.
  35. Seltzer JL, Lee AY, Akers KT, Sudbeck B, Southon EA, Wayner EA, Eisen AZ: Activation of 72-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase by normal fibroblasts in collagen lattices is mediated by integrin receptors but is not related to lattice contraction. Exp Cell Res 1994;213:365–374.
  36. Birkedal-Hansen H: Proteolytic remodeling of extracellular matrix. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1995;7:728–735.
  37. Ray JM, Stetler-Stevenson WG: The role of matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors in tissue invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Eur Respir J 1994;7:2062–2072.
  38. Wang Z, Juttermann R, Soloway PD: TIMP-2 is required for efficient activation of proMMP-2 in vivo. J Biol Chem 2000;275:26411–26415.
  39. Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Potentized homeopathic drugs act through regulation of gene expression: a hypothesis to explain their mechanism and pathways of action in vivo. Complement Ther Med 1997;5:43–46.
    External Resources
  40. Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Towards understanding molecular mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview. Mol Cell Biochem 2003;253:339–345.
  41. Khuda-Bukhsh AR: Laboratory research in homeopathy: pro. Integr Cancer Ther 2006;5:320–332.