Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 121, No. 2, 2008
Issue release date: June 2008
Cytogenet Genome Res 121:130–136 (2008)

A preliminary microsatellite genetic map of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

Huang Y. · Liu Q. · Tang B. · Lin L. · Liu W. · Zhang L. · Li N. · Hu X.
aState Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, and bCollege of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing (People’s Republic of China)

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password

Contact Information

I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in


Molecular genetic maps can provide information for the identification and localization of major genes associated with quantitative traits. However, there are currently no published genetic linkage maps for any ratites. Herein, a preliminary genetic map of ostrich was developed using a two-generation ostrich reference family by linkage analysis of 104 polymorphic microsatellite markers, including 40 novel markers reported in this study. A total of 35 microsatellite markers were placed into 13 linkage groups. Five linkage groups are composed of three or more loci, whereas the remaining eight groups each contained two markers. The sex-averaged map spans 365.4 cM. The marker interval of each linkage group ranges from 5.3 to 25.4 cM, and the average interval distance is 16.61 cM. The male map covers 342.7 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 15.58 cM, whereas the female map is 456.7 cM, with the average intermarker spacing of 20.76 cM. In order to screen the orthologous loci between ostrich and chicken, all of the flanking sequences of the 104 polymorphic loci, nine monomorphic loci and a further 12 reported microsatellite loci for ostrich were screened against the chicken genomic sequence using the BLAST algorithm (Altschul et al., 1990), and corresponding orthologs were found for 13 sequences. The microsatellite loci and genetic map developed in this study will be useful for QTL mapping, population genetics and phylogenetic studies in the ratite. In addition, the 13 orthologous loci identified in this study will be advantageous to the construction of a comparative genetic map between chicken and ostrich.

Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.


  1. Abolnik C, Bisschop SPR, Gerdes GH, Olivier AJ, Horner RF: Phylogenetic analysis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza H6N2 viruses from chicken outbreaks (2001–2005) suggest that they are reassortants of historic ostrich low-pathogenicity avian influenza H9N2 and H6N8 viruses. Avian Dis 51:279–284 (2007).
  2. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ: Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410 (1990).
  3. Baratti M, Alberti A, Groenen M, Veenendaal T, Fulgheri FD: Polymorphic microsatellites developed by cross-species amplifications in common pheasant breeds. Anim Genet 32:222–225 (2001).
  4. Burt DW, Morrice DR, Sewalem A, Smith J, Paton IR, et al: Preliminary linkage map of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) based on microsatellite markers. Anim Genet 34:399–409 (2003).
  5. Clotete SW, Bunter KL, Lambrechts H, Brand Z, Swart D: Variance components for live weight, body measurements and reproductive traits of pair-mated ostrich females. Br Poult Sci 47:147–158 (2006).
  6. Cooper A, Penny D: Mass survival of birds across the cretaceous-tertiary: molecular evidence. Science 275:1109–1113 (1997).
  7. Cooper A, Lalueza-Fox C, Anderson S, Rambaut A, Austin J, Ward R: Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature 409:704–707 (2001).
  8. Fields RL, Scribner KT: Isolation and characterization of novel waterfowl microsatellite loci: cross-species comparisons and research applications. Mol Ecol 6:199–202 (1997).
  9. Green P, Falls K, Crooks S: Documentation for CRIMAP, Version 2.4 (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 1990).
  10. Groenen MA, Cheng HH, Bumstead N, Benkel BF, Briles WE, et al: A consensus linkage map of the chicken genome. Genome Res 10:137–147 (2000).
  11. Harry DE, Zaitlin D, Marini PJ, Reed KM: A first-generation map of the turkey genome. Genome 46:914–924 (2003).
  12. Huang Y, Zhao Y, Haley CS, Hu S, Hao J, et al: A genetic and cytogenetic map for the duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Genetics 173:287–296 (2006).
  13. Ihara N, Takasuga A, Mizoshita K, Takeda H, Sugimoto M, et al: A comprehensive genetic map of the cattle genome based on 3802 microsatellites. Genome Res 14:1987–1998 (2004).
  14. Ipek A, Sahan U: Effect of breeder age and breeding season on egg production and incubation in farmed ostriches. Br Poult Sci 45:643–647 (2004).
  15. Kayang BB, Inoue-Murayama M, Hoshi T, Matsuo K, Takahashi H, et al: Microsatellite loci in Japanese quail and cross-species amplification in chicken and guinea fowl. Genet Sel Evol 34:233–253 (2002).
  16. Kayang BB, Vignal A, Inoue-Murayama M, Miwa M, Monvoisin JL, et al: A first-generation microsatellite linkage map of the Japanese quail. Anim Genet 35:195–200 (2004).
  17. Kemp SJ, Hishida O, Wambugu J, Rink A, Longeri ML, et al: A panel of polymorphic bovine, ovine and caprine microsatellite markers. Anim Genet 26:299–306 (1995).
  18. Kim KS, Min MS, An JH, Lee H: Cross-species amplification of Bovidae microsatellites and low diversity of the endangered Korean goral. J Hered 95:521–525 (2004).
  19. Kimwele CN, Graves JA, Burke T, Hanotte O: Development of microsatellite markers for parentage typing of chicks in the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Mol Ecol 7:249–251 (1998).
  20. Moore SS, Sargeant LL, King TJ, Mattick JS, GeorgesM, Hetzel DJ: The conservation of dinucleotide microsatellites among mammalian genomes allows the use of heterologous PCR primer pairs in closely related species. Genomics 10:654–660 (1991).
  21. Reed KM, Chaves LD, Garbe JR, Da Y, Harry DE: Allelic variation and genetic linkage of avian microsatellites in a new turkey population for genetic mapping. Cytogenet Genome Res 102:331–339 (2003).
  22. Rigoni M, Shinya K, Toffan A, Milani A, Bettini F, et al: Pneumo- and neurotropism of avian origin Italian highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N1 isolates in experimentally infected mice. Virology 364:28–35 (2007).
  23. Sahan U, Altan O, Ipek A, Yilmaz B: Effects of some egg characteristics on the mass loss and hatchability of ostrich (Struthio camelus) eggs. Br Poult Sci 44:380–385 (2003).
  24. Takagi N, Itoh M, Sasaki M: Chromosome studies in four species of Ratitae (Aves). Chromosoma 36:281–291 (1972).
  25. Tang B, Huang YH, Lin L, Hu XX, Feng JD, et al: Isolation and characterization of 70 novel microsatellite markers from ostrich (Struthio camelus) genome. Genome 46:833–840 (2003).
  26. Tisljar M, Beck R, Cooper RG, Marinculic A, Tudja M, et al: First finding of libyostrongylosis in farm-reared ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Croatia: Unusual histopathological finding in the brain of two ostriches, naturally infected with Libyostrongylus douglasi. Vet Parasitol 147:118–124 (2007).
  27. van Tuinen M, Sibley CG, Hedges SB: Phylogeny and biogeography of ratite birds inferred from DNA sequences of the mitochondrial genes. Mol Biol Evol 15:370–376 (1998).
  28. Ward WK, McPartlan HC, Matthews ME, Robinson NA: Ostrich microsatellite polymorphisms at the VIAS-OS4, VIAS-OS8, VIAS-OS14, VIAS-OS22, and VIAS-OS29 loci. Anim Genet 29:331 (1998).
  29. Zhou X: The Study on Application of RAPD & Microsatellite Marker in Ostrich Breeding. Master Thesis of China Agricultural University (2001).

Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50