Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 44, No. 1, 2000
Issue release date: January–February 2000
Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44:21–29
(DOI:10.1159/000012817)

Effect of a Hypocaloric Diet, Increased Protein Intake and Resistance Training on Lean Mass Gains and Fat Mass Loss in Overweight Police Officers

Demling R.H. · DeSanti L.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

We compare the effects of a moderate hypocaloric, high-protein diet and resistance training, using two different protein supplements, versus hypocaloric diet alone on body compositional changes in overweight police officers. A randomized, prospective 12-week study was performed comparing the changes in body composition produced by three different treatment modalities in three study groups. One group (n = 10) was placed on a nonlipogenic, hypocaloric diet alone (80% of predicted needs). A second group (n = 14) was placed on the hypocaloric diet plus resistance exercise plus a high-protein intake (1.5 g/kg/day) using a casein protein hydrolysate. In the third group (n = 14) treatment was identical to the second, except for the use of a whey protein hydrolysate. We found that weight loss was approximately 2.5 kg in all three groups. Mean percent body fat with diet alone decreased from a baseline of 27 ± 1.8 to 25 ± 1.3% at 12 weeks. With diet, exercise and casein the decrease was from 26 ± 1.7 to 18 ± 1.1% and with diet, exercise and whey protein the decrease was from 27 ± 1.6 to 23 ± 1.3%. The mean fat loss was 2.5 ± 0.6, 7.0 ± 2.1 and 4.2 ± 0.9 kg in the three groups, respectively. Lean mass gains in the three groups did not change for diet alone, versus gains of 4 ± 1.4 and 2 ± 0.7 kg in the casein and whey groups, respectively. Mean increase in strength for chest, shoulder and legs was 59 ± 9% for casein and 29 ± 9% for whey, a significant group difference. This significant difference in body composition and strength is likely due to improved nitrogen retention and overall anticatabolic effects caused by the peptide components of the casein hydrolysate.

Copyright © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Kuezmarski A, Flegal K, Campbell S, Johnson C: Increasing prevalence of overweight among U.S. adults. JAMA 1994;272:205–211.
  2. Williamson D, Serdulas M, Anda R: Weight loss attempts in adults: Goals, duration and rate of weight loss. Am J Public Health 1992;82:1251.
  3. Dugdale A, Payne P: Patterns of lean and fat deposition in adults. Nature 1977;206:3349–3351.
  4. Moore R: Influence of fasting and refeeding on response of adipose tissue to insulin. Am J Physiol 1963;205:222–224.
  5. Blacklevin G, Bistrian B, Flatt V: Role of protein sparing modified fast in a comprehensive weight reduction program; in Howard A (ed): Recent Advances in Obesity Research. London, Newman, 1975.
  6. Apfelbaum M, Fricker J: Low and very low caloric diets. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1126–1134.

    External Resources

  7. Higgins M, D’Agostino R, Kannel W, Cobb J: Benefits and adverse effects of weight loss: Observation from the Framingham Study. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:758–763.

    External Resources

  8. Raverssen E, Lillueja S, Knowler W: Reduced rate of energy expenditure as a risk factor for body weight gain. N Engl J Med 1988;318:467–472.
  9. Brouchard C, Tremblay A, Nadeane A: Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables. Int J Obes 1990;14:57–73.
  10. Poehlman E, Melby C: Resistance training and energy balance. Int J Sport Nutr 1998;8:143–159.
  11. Dohm G, Tapscott E, Kasperek G: Protein degradation during endurance exercise and recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987;19:166–171.
  12. Melby C, Scholl C, Edwards G, Bullough R: Effect of acute resistance exercise on post-exercise energy expenditures and resting metabolic rate. J Appl Physiol 1993;75:1847–1853.
  13. Poehlman E, Melby C: Resistance training and energy balance. Int J Sport Nutr 1998;8:143–159.
  14. Ballor D, Poehllman E: Exercise training enhances fat free mass preservation during diet induced weight loss: A meter-analytic finding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994;18:35–40.
  15. Treuth M, Ryan A, Pralley R: Effects of strength training on total and regional body composition in older men. J Appl Physiol 1994;2:614–620.
  16. Zurlo F, Larson K, Bogardus C, Ravussin E: Skeletal muscle metabolism is a major determinant of resting energy expenditure. J Clin Invest 1990;86:1423–1427.
  17. World Health Organizations: Energy and Protein Requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Consultation Technical Report Series, 724. Geneva, WHO, 1985.
  18. Durnin J, Passmore G: Energy, Work and Leisure: Effect of Body Composition. London, Hernemann Educational Books, 1967.
  19. Frontera W, Meredith C, O’Reilly K: Strength conditioning in older men: Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. J Appl Physiol 1988;64:1038–1044.
  20. Lemon PW: Protein and exercise: Update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987;19:179–190.

    External Resources

  21. Daphne L, Pannemanis A, Wagemaker A: The effect of an increase in protein intake on whole body protein turnover in elderly men. J Nutr 1997;127:1788–1799.
  22. Lemon P: Maximizing performance with nutrition: Protein and exercises. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987;19:179–190.

    External Resources

  23. Skov AR, Taubiro S, Renn B, Holm L: Randomized trial on protein vs. carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:1–9.
  24. Alford B, Blankership A, Hagen R: The effects of variations in carbohydrate protein and fat content of the diet upon weight loss, blood values and nutritient intake of adult obese women. J Am Diet Assoc 1990;90:534–540.
  25. Whitehead J, McNeil G, Smith S: The effect of protein intake on 24 hour energy expenditures during energy restriction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1996;20:727–732.
  26. Roberta P, Zaloga S: Dietary Bioactive Peptides. Fullerton, New Horizons Society of Critical Care Medicine, 1994, p 237.
  27. Morley J: Food peptides: A new class of hormones. JAMA 1982;247:2379–2380.
  28. Coste M, Tome D: Milk proteins with physiological activities: II. Opioid and immunostimulating peptides derived from milk protein. Lait 1991;71:241–247.
  29. Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P: Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997;94:14930–14935.
  30. Brantl V, Texchemacher H, Henschon A, Lattsperch F: Novel opioid peptides derived from casein (B-casomorphin). Physiol Chem 1979;360:1211–1216.
  31. Mahe S, Roos N, Benamoiuzig R: Gastrointestinal kinetics and the digestion of [15N]β lactoglobulin and casein in humans: The influence of the native and the quantity of the proteins. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:546–552.
  32. Demling R, DeSanti L: Increased protein intake during the recovery phase after severe burns increases body weight gain and muscle function. J Burn Care Rehabil 1998;19:161–168.
  33. Baba N, Sawaya S, Torbay N, et al: High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:1202–1206.
  34. American College of Sports Medicine: Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, ed 5. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1990.
  35. Food and Drug Board: Recommended Dietary Allowances. Washington, D.C., Nat Acad Science Press, 1989.
  36. WHO/FAO Report: Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series No 522, Geneva, World Health Organization, 1973.
  37. Di Pietro L: Physical activity and body weight and obesity: An epidemiological perspective. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 1995;23:175–303.
  38. Apfelbaum M, Bostsawron J, Lacatis D: Effect of caloric restriction and excessive caloric intake on energy expenditure. Am J Clin Nutr 1971;29:1405–1409.
  39. Flatt J: The biochemistry of energy expenditure; in Bray GA (ed): Recent Advances in Obesity Research. London, Newman Publishing, 1978, vol 2, pp 221–228.
  40. Slag M, Ahmed M, Gannon M, Nuttal F: Meal stimulation of cortisol secretion: A protein-induced effect. Metabolism 1981;30:1104–1108.

    External Resources

  41. Bessey P, Jiang Z, Johnson D, et al: Posttraumatic skeletal muscle proteolysis: The role of the hormonal environment. World J Surg 1989;13:465–470.

    External Resources

  42. Streat S: Aggressive nutritional support does not prevent protein loss despite fat gain in septic intensive care patients. J Trauma 1987;27:262–266.
  43. Young V: Whole body energy and nitrogen relationship; in Kinney J (ed): Energy Metabolism: Tissue Determinants and Cellular Corollaries. New York, Raven, 1992, p 139.
  44. Spense P, Galantino M, Mossberg K: Progressive resistance exercise: Effect on muscle function and anthropometry of a select AIDS population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71:644–648.
  45. Hickson J, Khinkelman K: Exercise and protein intake effects on urinary 3-methyl histidine excretion. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:246–253.

    External Resources

  46. Futhi J, Howard H, Classen K: Structural changes in skeletal muscle tissue with heavy resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 1986;7:123–127.

    External Resources

  47. Durnin J, Womersley J: Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: Measurements on 481 men and women aged 16–72 years. Br J Nutr 1974;32:77–82.
  48. Lohman T: Skinfolds and body density and their relation to body fatness: A review. Hum Biol 1981;25:181–189.
  49. Lohman T, Roche A, Martorell R: Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champagne, Human Kinetics Publishers, 1988.
  50. Heymsfield S, Tighe A, Wang Z: Nutritional assessment by anthropometric and biochemical methods; in Shils M, Olson J, Shike M (eds): Modern Nutrition in Health & Disease. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1994, p 812.
  51. Heymsfield S, Wang Z, Baumgartner R, Ross R: Human body composition: Advances in models and methods (review). Annu Rev Nutr 1997;17:527–558.
  52. Fuller N, Jebb S, Goldberg G: Interobserver variability in the measurement of body composition. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991;45:43–54.
  53. Moritani T, Devries H: Potential for gross muscle hypertrophy in older men. J Gerontol 1980;35:672–682.

    External Resources

  54. Frontera W, Meredith C, Evans W: Strength training and determinants of VO2 max in older men. J Appl Physiol 1990;68:329–333.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50