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Vol. 75, No. 4, 2008
Issue release date: June 2008
Pathobiology 2008;75:209–225
(DOI:10.1159/000132382)

Atherothrombosis and Plaque Heterology: Different Location or a Unique Disease?

Slevin M.a · Wang Q.a · Font M.A.c · Luque A.c, d · Juan-Babot O.d · Gaffney J.a · Kumar P.a · Kumar S.b · Badimon L.d · Krupinski J.c, d
aSchool of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, and bDepartment of Pathology, Medical School, Manchester University and Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK; cDepartment of Neurology, Stroke Unit, University Hospital of Bellvitge (HUB) and IDIBELL, and dInstituto Catalán de Ciencias Cardiovasculares, ICCC-CSIC-HSCSP_UAB, Barcelona, Spain
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Formation of unstable plaques frequently results in atherothrombosis, the major cause for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who have symptomatic thrombosis in one vascular bed are at increased risk of disease in other beds. However, the development of the disease in carotid, coronary and peripheral arteries may have different pathophysiology suggesting that more complex treatment protocols may have to be designed to reduce plaque development at different locations. In this review we describe the known risk factors, compare the developmental features of coronary and carotid plaque development and determine their association with end-point ischaemic events. Differences are also seen in the genetic contribution to plaque development as well as in the deregulation of gene and protein expression and cellular signal transduction activity of active cells in regions susceptible to thrombosis. Differences between carotid and coronary artery plaque development might help to explain the differences in anatomopathological appearance and risk of rupture.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Plaques
  • Stroke
  • Heart disease

 goto top of outline Abstract

Formation of unstable plaques frequently results in atherothrombosis, the major cause for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who have symptomatic thrombosis in one vascular bed are at increased risk of disease in other beds. However, the development of the disease in carotid, coronary and peripheral arteries may have different pathophysiology suggesting that more complex treatment protocols may have to be designed to reduce plaque development at different locations. In this review we describe the known risk factors, compare the developmental features of coronary and carotid plaque development and determine their association with end-point ischaemic events. Differences are also seen in the genetic contribution to plaque development as well as in the deregulation of gene and protein expression and cellular signal transduction activity of active cells in regions susceptible to thrombosis. Differences between carotid and coronary artery plaque development might help to explain the differences in anatomopathological appearance and risk of rupture.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Jerzy Krupinski
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
Feixa Llarga s/n
ES–08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)
Tel. +34 93 260 77 11, Fax +34 93 260 78 82, E-Mail krupinski@csub.scs.es


 goto top of outline Article Information

M. Slevin and J. Krupinski contributed equally to this paper.

Received: October 16, 2007
Accepted: January 8, 2008
Published online: June 26, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 17
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 134


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Pathobiology (Exploring the basis of disease)

Vol. 75, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: June 2008)

Journal Editor: Borisch B. (Geneva), Yasui W. (Hiroshima)
ISSN: 1015–2008 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0291 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PAT


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Formation of unstable plaques frequently results in atherothrombosis, the major cause for ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and peripheral arterial disease. Patients who have symptomatic thrombosis in one vascular bed are at increased risk of disease in other beds. However, the development of the disease in carotid, coronary and peripheral arteries may have different pathophysiology suggesting that more complex treatment protocols may have to be designed to reduce plaque development at different locations. In this review we describe the known risk factors, compare the developmental features of coronary and carotid plaque development and determine their association with end-point ischaemic events. Differences are also seen in the genetic contribution to plaque development as well as in the deregulation of gene and protein expression and cellular signal transduction activity of active cells in regions susceptible to thrombosis. Differences between carotid and coronary artery plaque development might help to explain the differences in anatomopathological appearance and risk of rupture.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Dr. Jerzy Krupinski
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge
Feixa Llarga s/n
ES–08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain)
Tel. +34 93 260 77 11, Fax +34 93 260 78 82, E-Mail krupinski@csub.scs.es


 goto top of outline Article Information

M. Slevin and J. Krupinski contributed equally to this paper.

Received: October 16, 2007
Accepted: January 8, 2008
Published online: June 26, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 17
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 134


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Pathobiology (Exploring the basis of disease)

Vol. 75, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: June 2008)

Journal Editor: Borisch B. (Geneva), Yasui W. (Hiroshima)
ISSN: 1015–2008 (Print), eISSN: 1423–0291 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PAT


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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