Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 74, No. 2, 1998
Issue release date: August 1998

Human Milk: Nutritional Aspects of a Dynamic Food

Picciano M.F.
To view the fulltext, log in and/or choose pay-per-view option

Individual Users: Register with Karger Login Information

Please create your User ID & Password





Contact Information











I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.

To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Abstract

The composition and volume of human milk progressively changes with the onset and duration of lactation and can be influenced by maternal nutritional factors. Current evidence indicates that infant demand is the major determinant of the quantity of milk transferred to the nursing infant. Human milk is remarkable for its variability, and ranges of intakes of milk constituents are comparable with normal patterns of infant growth and development. Lipids are by far the most variable constituents in human milk with both long-term maternal nutrition states and daily intake capable of exerting an influence. Maternal vitamin intake bears a strong relationship to milk content, and appropriate intakes of vitamins D and K may not always be furnished to nursing infants. Major and trace minerals in human milk are not greatly affected by maternal diet, with selenium and iodine being notable exceptions. Compartmentalization and molecular forms of the trace elements in human milk are associated with high infant bioavailability. The success of lactation should be measured using maternal and infant indices of nutritional adequacy.



Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Vijayakumar M, Fall CH, Osmond C, Barker DJ: Birthweight, weight at one year and left ventricular mass in adult life. Br Heart J 1995;73:363–367.
  2. Hytten FE: Clinical and chemical studies in human lactation. III: Diurnal variation in major constituents of milk. Br Med J 1954;i:179–182.
  3. Ruhrah J: Pediatric biographies. Am J Dis Child 1928;35:492–494.
  4. Widdowson EM, McCance RA: The determinant of growth and form. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 1974;185:1–17.
  5. Johnson PR Jr, Roloff JS: Vitamin B-12 deficiency in an infant strictly breast-fed by a mother with latent pernicious anemia. J Pediatr 1982;100:917–919.

    External Resources

  6. Malloy MH: The follow-up of infants exposed to chloride-deficient formulas. Adv Pediatr 1993;40:141–158.
  7. Neville MC, Keller R, Seacat J, Lutes V, Neifert M, Casey C, Allen JA, Archer P: Studies in human lactation: Milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:1375–1386.
  8. Butte NF, Villalpando S, Wong WW, Flores-Huerta S, de Henadez-Beltran M, O’Brian Smith E, Garza C: Human milk intake and growth faltering of rural Mesoamerindian infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1109–1116.
  9. Macy IG, Hunscher HA, Donelson E, Nemo B: Human milk flow. Am J Dis Child 1930;6:492–515.
  10. Saint L, Smith M, Hartmann PE: The yield and nutrient content of milk in eight women breast-feeding twins and one woman breast-feeding triplets. Br J Nutr 1986;56:49–58.

    External Resources

  11. Institute of Medicine/National Academy of Sciences: Nutrition during Lactation. Washington, National Academy Press, 1991.
  12. Jensen RG (ed): Handbook of Milk Composition. San Diego, Academic Press, 1995.
  13. Motil KJ, Sheng HP, Montandon CM, Wong WW: Human milk protein does not limit growth of breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:10–17.
  14. Uauy R, Quan R, Gil A: Role of nucleotides in intestinal development and repair: Implications for infant nutrition. J Nutr 1994;124(suppl):1436–1441.
  15. Janas LM, Picciano MF: The nucleotide profile of human milk. Pediatr Res 1982;16:659–662.

    External Resources

  16. Miranda R, Saravia NG, Ackerman R, Murphy N, Berman S, McMurray DN: Effect of maternal nutritional status on immunological substances in human colostrum and milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;37:632–640.
  17. Forsum E, Lönnerdal B: Effect of protein intake on protein and nitrogen composition of breast milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:1809–1813.

    External Resources

  18. Deb AK, Cama HR: Studies on human lactation: Dietary nitrogen utilization during lactation and distribution of nitrogen in mother’s milk. Br J Nutr 1962;16:65–73.

    External Resources

  19. Lindblad BS, Rahimtoola RJ: A pilot study of the quality of human milk in a lower socio-economic group in Karachi, Pakistan. Acta Paediatr Scand 1974;63:125–128.

    External Resources

  20. Wurtman JJ, Fernstrom JD: Free amino acid, protein and fat contents of breast milk from Guatemalan mothers consuming a corn-based diet. Early Hum Dev 1979;3:67–77.

    External Resources

  21. Hamosh M: Lipid metabolism in pediatric nutrition. Pediatr Clin North Am 1995;42:839–859.
  22. Ziegler EE, Fomon SJ: Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infancy. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1983;2:288–294.
  23. Newburg DS, Pickering LK, McClure RH, Cleary TG: Fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk protect suckling mice from heat-stabile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli. J Infect Dis 1990;162:1075–1080.

    External Resources

  24. Beerens H, Romond C, Neut C: Influence of breast-feeding on the bifid flora of the newborn intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:2434–2439.
  25. Greer FR, Marshall S: Bone mineral content, serum vitamin D metabolite concentrations and ultraviolet B light exposure in infants fed human milk with and without vitamin D-2 supplements. J Pediatr 1989;114:204–212.

    External Resources

  26. Greer FR, Marshall SP, Foley AL, Suttie JW: Improving the vitamin K status of breastfeeding infants with maternal vitamin K supplementations. Pediatrics 1997;99:88–92.
  27. O’Connor D, Green T, Picciano MF: Maternal folate status and lactation. J Mam Gl Bio Neop 1997;2:279–289.
  28. Greer FR, Tsang RC, Levin RS, Searcy JE, Wu R, Steichen JJ: Increasing serum calcium and magnesium concentrations in breast-fed infants: Longitudinal studies of minerals in human milk and in sera of nursing mothers and their infants. J Pediatr 1982;100:59–64.

    External Resources

  29. Cavell PA, Widdowson EM: Intakes and excretions of iron, copper and zinc in the neonatal period. Arch Dis Child 1964;39:496–501.
  30. Kirksey A, Ernst JA, Roepke JL, Tsai TI: Influence of mineral intake and use of oral contraceptives before pregnancy on the mineral content of human colostrum and of more mature milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:30–39.
  31. Vuori E, Makenen SM, Kara R, Knitanen P: The effects of the dietary intakes of copper, iron, manganese and zinc on the trace element content of human milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1980;33:227–231.

    External Resources

  32. Moser PB, Reynolds RD: Dietary zinc intake and zinc concentrations of plasma, erythrocytes and breast milk in antepartum and postpartum lactating and nonlactating women: A longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:101–108.

    External Resources

  33. Widdowson EM, Chan H, Harrison GE, Milner RBG: Accumulation of copper, zinc, manganese, chromium and cobalt in the human liver before birth. Biol Neonate 1972;20:360–367.

    External Resources

  34. Saarinen UM, Siimes MA, Dallman PR: Iron absorption in infants: High bioavailability of breast milk iron as indicated by the extrinsic tag method of iron absorption and by concentraton of serum ferritin. J Pediatr 1977;91:36–39.
  35. McMillan JA, Oski FA, Lourie G, Tomarelli RM, Landaw SA: Iron absorption from human milk, simulated human milk and proprietary formula. Pediatrics 1977;60:896–900.

    External Resources

  36. Sandstrom B, Cederblad A, Lönnerdal B: Zinc absorption from human, cow’s milk and infant formula. Am J Dis Child 1983;137:726–729.
  37. Davidson L, Cederblad A, Lönnerdal B, Sandstrom B: Manganese absorption from human milk, cow’s milk and infant formulas in humans. Am J Dis Child 1989;143:823–827.

    External Resources

  38. Chan W-Y, Bates JM, Rennert OM: Comparative studies of manganese binding in human breast milk, bovine milk and infant formula. J Nutr 1982;112:642–651.

    External Resources

  39. Smith AM, Picciano MF, Milner JA: Selenium intake and status of human milk and formula fed infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:521–526.
  40. McGuire SL, Burget SL, Milner JA; Glass L, Kummer R, Deering R, Boucek R, Picciano MF: Selenium status of infants is influenced by supplementation of formula or maternal diet. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;58:643–648.


Pay-per-View Options
Direct payment This item at the regular price: USD 38.00
Payment from account With a Karger Pay-per-View account (down payment USD 150) you profit from a special rate for this and other single items.
This item at the discounted price: USD 26.50