The data reviewed in this study show that immune-active molecules, such as infectious agents and their components, and cytokines, may induce profound alterations in several neurotransmitters in the CNS. The activation of the immune system elicits fever, behavioral and neuroendocrine changes and may be involved in neuropathological changes occurring in CNS conditions. These effects may be achieved through and accounted for by the changes induced in central neurotransmitters and in the neuroendocrine system by immune challenges. The present review will summarize the available evidence of the reciprocal interactions between cytokines and neurotransmitters in the CNS.
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