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Table of Contents
Vol. 52, No. 4, 2008
Issue release date: September 2008
Free Access
Ann Nutr Metab 2008;52:272–280
(DOI:10.1159/000146274)

Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

Haugen M. · Brantsæter A.L. · Alexander J. · Meltzer H.M.
Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background: Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods: This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results: 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions: Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Dietary supplements
  • Pregnancy
  • Nutrient intake
  • Multivitamins
  • Minerals
  • Fatty acids
  • Vitamin D
  • Folate
  • Iodine

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background: Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods: This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results: 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions: Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
  1. Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Cox V: Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 1996;312:410–414.
  2. Godfrey K, Robinson S: Maternal nutrition, placental growth and fetal programming. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:105–111.
  3. Oken E, Ning Y, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Olsen SF, Gillman MW: Diet during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Ann Epidemiol 2007;17:663–668.
  4. Barker DJ, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA, Robinson JS: Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993;341:938–941.
  5. Clausen T, Slott M, Solvoll K, Drevon CA, Vollset SE, Henriksen T: High intake of energy, sucrose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:451–458.
  6. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131–137.
  7. Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, Eriksen L, Graudal N: Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:749–757.
  8. Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA: Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:e39–e44.
  9. Oken E, Kleinman KP, Olsen SF, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW: Associations of seafood and elongated n–3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:774–783.
  10. Jensen CL: Effects of n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;1452S–1457S.
  11. Morris CD, Jacobson SL, Anand R, Ewell MG, Hauth JC, Curet LB, Catalano PM, Sibai BM, Levine RJ: Nutrient intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: evidence from a large prospective cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:643–651.
  12. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1796–1806.
  13. Maats FH, Crowther CA: Patterns of vitamin, mineral and herbal supplement use prior to and during pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42:494–496.
  14. Tsui B, Dennehy CE, Tsourounis C: A survey of dietary supplement use during pregnancy at an academic medical center. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:433–437.
  15. Radimer KL: National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women. J Nutr 2003;133:2003S–2007S.
  16. Magnus P, Irgens LM, Haug K, Nystad W, Skjaerven R, Stoltenberg C, MoBa Study Group: Cohort profile: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol 2006;35:1146–1150.
  17. NNR Project Group: Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004, ed 4. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2004.
  18. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Validity of a new Food Frequency Questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:28–43.
  19. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Hagve T-A, Aksnes L, Rasmussen SE, Julshamn K, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:146–154.
  20. Meltzer HM, Brantsæter AL, Ydersbond T, Alexander J, Haugen M, The MoBa Dietary Support Group: Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study; experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:14–27.
  21. Lauritzen J: FoodCalc. www.ibt.ku.dk/jesper/FoodCalc/Default.htm; accessed October 2005.
  22. Rimestad AH, Borgerjordet A, Vesterhus KN, Sygnestveit K, Løken EB, Trygg K, Pollestad L, Lund-Larsen K, Omholt-Jensen G, Nordbotten A: The Norwegian Food Table. Oslo, Statens Råd for Ernæring og Fysisk Aktivitet, Statens Næringsmiddeltilsyn, Institutt for Ernæringsforskning, 2005.
  23. Arkkola T, Uusitalo U, Pietikainen M, Metsala J, Kronberg-Kippila C, Erkkola M, Veijola R, Knip M, Virtanen SM, Ovaskainen ML: Dietary intake and use of dietary supplements in relation to demographic variables among pregnant Finnish women. Br J Nutr 2006;96:913–920.
  24. Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Torresani T, Burgi H, Hurrell RF: Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:162–166.
  25. Braekke K, Staff AC: Periconceptional use of folic acid supplements in Oslo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82:620–627.
  26. Nilsen RM, Vollset SE, Gjessing HK, Magnus P, Meltzer HM, Haugen M, Ueland PM: Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1134–1141.
  27. Forster DA, Wills G, Denning A, Bolger M: The use of folic acid and other vitamins before and during pregnancy in a group of women in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery DOI 10.1016/j.midw2007.01.019.
  28. Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer MS: Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 1998;338:147–152.
  29. Olsen SF, Mikkelsen TB, Knudsen VK, Orozova-Bekkevold I, Halldorsson TI, Strom M, Osterdal ML: Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21:76–86.
  30. Olafsdottir AS, Skuladottir GV, Thorsdottir I, Hauksson A, Thorgeirsdottir H, Steingrimsdottir L: Relationship between high consumption of marine fatty acids in early pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. BJOG 2006;113:301–309.
  31. Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD: Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:906–912.
  32. Mannion CA, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG: Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 2006;174:1273–1277.
  33. Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 2006;367:36–43.
  34. Hypponen E: Vitamin D for the prevention of preeclampsia? A hypothesis. Nutr Rev 2005;63:225–232.
  35. Halhali A, Villa AR, Madrazo E, Soria MC, Mercado E, Diaz L, Avila E, Garabedian M, Larrea F: Longitudinal changes in maternal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin like growth factor I levels in pregnant women who developed preeclampsia: comparison with normotensive pregnant women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89–90:553–556.
  36. Dahl L, Meltzer HM, Opsahl JL, Julshamn K: Iodine intake and status in two groups of Norwegians. Scand J Nutr 2003;47:170–178.

    External Resources

  37. Glinoer D: The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;18:133–152.
  38. Delange F: Iodine deficiency in Europe and its consequences: an update. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002;29(suppl 2):S404–S416.
  39. Glinoer D: Clinical and biological consequences of iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Endocr Dev 2007;10:62–85.
  40. Petrakos G, Panagopoulos P, Koutras I, Kazis A, Panagiotakos D, Economou A, Kanellopoulos N, Salamalekis E, Zabelas A: A comparison of the dietary and total intake of micronutrients in a group of pregnant Greek women with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006;127:166–171.
  41. Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A: Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1369–1373.
  42. Bonham M, O’Connor JM, McAnena LB, Walsh PM, Downes CS, Hannigan BM, Strain JJ: Zinc supplementation has no effect on lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and putative indices of copper status in healthy men. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003;93:75–86.
  43. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW: Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699–706.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Margaretha Haugen
Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Division of Environmental Medicine
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404
NO–0403 Oslo (Norway)
Tel. + 47 210 765 63, Fax +47 210 762 43, E-Mail margaretha.haugen@fhi.no


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: November 19, 2007
Accepted: March 26, 2008
Published online: July 22, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 43


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (Journal of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Dietetics)

Vol. 52, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: September 2008)

Journal Editor: Elmadfa I. (Vienna)
ISSN: 0250–6807 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Background: Use of dietary supplements during pregnancy may give an important contribution to nutrient intake, and for nutrients like folate and vitamin D supplements are recommended. Our objective was to study use and contribution of dietary supplement to nutrient intake among women participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods: This study is based on 40,108 women participating in MoBa which is conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The women had filled inversion 2 of the food frequency questionnaire in MoBa between February 2002 and February 2005. Results: 81% reported use of one or more dietary supplements. The most commonly used category was cod liver oil/fish oil supplements (59%) followed by singular folic acid supplements (36%) and multivitamin/multimineral supplements (31%). The nutrient contribution of the dietary supplements varied from 65% for folate and vitamin D to 1% for potassium among supplement users. The dietary intake of vitamin D, folate, iodine and iron did not reach the Nordic Recommendations for pregnant women. Conclusions: Use of supplements improved the intake of folate, iron and vitamin D, but not sufficiently to reach the recommended amounts.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Margaretha Haugen
Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Division of Environmental Medicine
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404
NO–0403 Oslo (Norway)
Tel. + 47 210 765 63, Fax +47 210 762 43, E-Mail margaretha.haugen@fhi.no


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: November 19, 2007
Accepted: March 26, 2008
Published online: July 22, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 43


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (Journal of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Dietetics)

Vol. 52, No. 4, Year 2008 (Cover Date: September 2008)

Journal Editor: Elmadfa I. (Vienna)
ISSN: 0250–6807 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Cox V: Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 1996;312:410–414.
  2. Godfrey K, Robinson S: Maternal nutrition, placental growth and fetal programming. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:105–111.
  3. Oken E, Ning Y, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Olsen SF, Gillman MW: Diet during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Ann Epidemiol 2007;17:663–668.
  4. Barker DJ, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA, Robinson JS: Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993;341:938–941.
  5. Clausen T, Slott M, Solvoll K, Drevon CA, Vollset SE, Henriksen T: High intake of energy, sucrose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:451–458.
  6. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131–137.
  7. Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, Eriksen L, Graudal N: Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:749–757.
  8. Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA: Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:e39–e44.
  9. Oken E, Kleinman KP, Olsen SF, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW: Associations of seafood and elongated n–3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:774–783.
  10. Jensen CL: Effects of n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;1452S–1457S.
  11. Morris CD, Jacobson SL, Anand R, Ewell MG, Hauth JC, Curet LB, Catalano PM, Sibai BM, Levine RJ: Nutrient intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: evidence from a large prospective cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:643–651.
  12. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1796–1806.
  13. Maats FH, Crowther CA: Patterns of vitamin, mineral and herbal supplement use prior to and during pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42:494–496.
  14. Tsui B, Dennehy CE, Tsourounis C: A survey of dietary supplement use during pregnancy at an academic medical center. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:433–437.
  15. Radimer KL: National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women. J Nutr 2003;133:2003S–2007S.
  16. Magnus P, Irgens LM, Haug K, Nystad W, Skjaerven R, Stoltenberg C, MoBa Study Group: Cohort profile: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol 2006;35:1146–1150.
  17. NNR Project Group: Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004, ed 4. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2004.
  18. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Validity of a new Food Frequency Questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:28–43.
  19. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Hagve T-A, Aksnes L, Rasmussen SE, Julshamn K, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:146–154.
  20. Meltzer HM, Brantsæter AL, Ydersbond T, Alexander J, Haugen M, The MoBa Dietary Support Group: Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study; experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:14–27.
  21. Lauritzen J: FoodCalc. www.ibt.ku.dk/jesper/FoodCalc/Default.htm; accessed October 2005.
  22. Rimestad AH, Borgerjordet A, Vesterhus KN, Sygnestveit K, Løken EB, Trygg K, Pollestad L, Lund-Larsen K, Omholt-Jensen G, Nordbotten A: The Norwegian Food Table. Oslo, Statens Råd for Ernæring og Fysisk Aktivitet, Statens Næringsmiddeltilsyn, Institutt for Ernæringsforskning, 2005.
  23. Arkkola T, Uusitalo U, Pietikainen M, Metsala J, Kronberg-Kippila C, Erkkola M, Veijola R, Knip M, Virtanen SM, Ovaskainen ML: Dietary intake and use of dietary supplements in relation to demographic variables among pregnant Finnish women. Br J Nutr 2006;96:913–920.
  24. Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Torresani T, Burgi H, Hurrell RF: Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:162–166.
  25. Braekke K, Staff AC: Periconceptional use of folic acid supplements in Oslo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82:620–627.
  26. Nilsen RM, Vollset SE, Gjessing HK, Magnus P, Meltzer HM, Haugen M, Ueland PM: Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1134–1141.
  27. Forster DA, Wills G, Denning A, Bolger M: The use of folic acid and other vitamins before and during pregnancy in a group of women in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery DOI 10.1016/j.midw2007.01.019.
  28. Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer MS: Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 1998;338:147–152.
  29. Olsen SF, Mikkelsen TB, Knudsen VK, Orozova-Bekkevold I, Halldorsson TI, Strom M, Osterdal ML: Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21:76–86.
  30. Olafsdottir AS, Skuladottir GV, Thorsdottir I, Hauksson A, Thorgeirsdottir H, Steingrimsdottir L: Relationship between high consumption of marine fatty acids in early pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. BJOG 2006;113:301–309.
  31. Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD: Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:906–912.
  32. Mannion CA, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG: Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 2006;174:1273–1277.
  33. Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 2006;367:36–43.
  34. Hypponen E: Vitamin D for the prevention of preeclampsia? A hypothesis. Nutr Rev 2005;63:225–232.
  35. Halhali A, Villa AR, Madrazo E, Soria MC, Mercado E, Diaz L, Avila E, Garabedian M, Larrea F: Longitudinal changes in maternal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin like growth factor I levels in pregnant women who developed preeclampsia: comparison with normotensive pregnant women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89–90:553–556.
  36. Dahl L, Meltzer HM, Opsahl JL, Julshamn K: Iodine intake and status in two groups of Norwegians. Scand J Nutr 2003;47:170–178.

    External Resources

  37. Glinoer D: The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;18:133–152.
  38. Delange F: Iodine deficiency in Europe and its consequences: an update. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002;29(suppl 2):S404–S416.
  39. Glinoer D: Clinical and biological consequences of iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Endocr Dev 2007;10:62–85.
  40. Petrakos G, Panagopoulos P, Koutras I, Kazis A, Panagiotakos D, Economou A, Kanellopoulos N, Salamalekis E, Zabelas A: A comparison of the dietary and total intake of micronutrients in a group of pregnant Greek women with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006;127:166–171.
  41. Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A: Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1369–1373.
  42. Bonham M, O’Connor JM, McAnena LB, Walsh PM, Downes CS, Hannigan BM, Strain JJ: Zinc supplementation has no effect on lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and putative indices of copper status in healthy men. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003;93:75–86.
  43. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW: Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699–706.