Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 52, No. 4, 2008
Issue release date: September 2008
Section title: Original Paper
Free Access
Ann Nutr Metab 2008;52:272–280

Dietary Supplements Contribute Substantially to the Total Nutrient Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

Haugen M. · Brantsæter A.L. · Alexander J. · Meltzer H.M.
Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
email Corresponding Author

Margaretha Haugen

Department of Food Safety and Nutrition, Division of Environmental Medicine

Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404

NO–0403 Oslo (Norway)

Tel. + 47 210 765 63, Fax +47 210 762 43, E-Mail margaretha.haugen@fhi.no


  1. Godfrey K, Robinson S, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Cox V: Maternal nutrition in early and late pregnancy in relation to placental and fetal growth. BMJ 1996;312:410–414.
  2. Godfrey K, Robinson S: Maternal nutrition, placental growth and fetal programming. Proc Nutr Soc 1998;57:105–111.
  3. Oken E, Ning Y, Rifas-Shiman SL, Rich-Edwards JW, Olsen SF, Gillman MW: Diet during pregnancy and risk of preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Ann Epidemiol 2007;17:663–668.
  4. Barker DJ, Gluckman PD, Godfrey KM, Harding JE, Owens JA, Robinson JS: Fetal nutrition and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Lancet 1993;341:938–941.
  5. Clausen T, Slott M, Solvoll K, Drevon CA, Vollset SE, Henriksen T: High intake of energy, sucrose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with increased risk of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:451–458.
  6. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group: Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 1991;338:131–137.
  7. Milman N, Bergholt T, Byg KE, Eriksen L, Graudal N: Iron status and iron balance during pregnancy. A critical reappraisal of iron supplementation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999;78:749–757.
  8. Helland IB, Smith L, Saarem K, Saugstad OD, Drevon CA: Maternal supplementation with very-long-chain n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation augments children’s IQ at 4 years of age. Pediatrics 2003;111:e39–e44.
  9. Oken E, Kleinman KP, Olsen SF, Rich-Edwards JW, Gillman MW: Associations of seafood and elongated n–3 fatty acid intake with fetal growth and length of gestation: results from a US pregnancy cohort. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:774–783.
  10. Jensen CL: Effects of n–3 fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;1452S–1457S.
  11. Morris CD, Jacobson SL, Anand R, Ewell MG, Hauth JC, Curet LB, Catalano PM, Sibai BM, Levine RJ: Nutrient intake and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: evidence from a large prospective cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;184:643–651.
  12. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med 2006;354:1796–1806.
  13. Maats FH, Crowther CA: Patterns of vitamin, mineral and herbal supplement use prior to and during pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42:494–496.
  14. Tsui B, Dennehy CE, Tsourounis C: A survey of dietary supplement use during pregnancy at an academic medical center. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:433–437.
  15. Radimer KL: National nutrition data: contributions and challenges to monitoring dietary supplement use in women. J Nutr 2003;133:2003S–2007S.
  16. Magnus P, Irgens LM, Haug K, Nystad W, Skjaerven R, Stoltenberg C, MoBa Study Group: Cohort profile: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Int J Epidemiol 2006;35:1146–1150.
  17. NNR Project Group: Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004, ed 4. Copenhagen, Nordic Council of Ministers, 2004.
  18. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Validity of a new Food Frequency Questionnaire for pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:28–43.
  19. Brantsæter AL, Haugen M, Hagve T-A, Aksnes L, Rasmussen SE, Julshamn K, Alexander J, Meltzer HM: Self-reported dietary supplement use is confirmed by biological markers in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:146–154.
  20. Meltzer HM, Brantsæter AL, Ydersbond T, Alexander J, Haugen M, The MoBa Dietary Support Group: Methodological challenges when monitoring the diet of pregnant women in a large study; experiences from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Matern Child Nutr 2008;4:14–27.
  21. Lauritzen J: FoodCalc. www.ibt.ku.dk/jesper/FoodCalc/Default.htm; accessed October 2005.
  22. Rimestad AH, Borgerjordet A, Vesterhus KN, Sygnestveit K, Løken EB, Trygg K, Pollestad L, Lund-Larsen K, Omholt-Jensen G, Nordbotten A: The Norwegian Food Table. Oslo, Statens Råd for Ernæring og Fysisk Aktivitet, Statens Næringsmiddeltilsyn, Institutt for Ernæringsforskning, 2005.
  23. Arkkola T, Uusitalo U, Pietikainen M, Metsala J, Kronberg-Kippila C, Erkkola M, Veijola R, Knip M, Virtanen SM, Ovaskainen ML: Dietary intake and use of dietary supplements in relation to demographic variables among pregnant Finnish women. Br J Nutr 2006;96:913–920.
  24. Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Torresani T, Burgi H, Hurrell RF: Monitoring the adequacy of salt iodization in Switzerland: a national study of school children and pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001;55:162–166.
  25. Braekke K, Staff AC: Periconceptional use of folic acid supplements in Oslo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003;82:620–627.
  26. Nilsen RM, Vollset SE, Gjessing HK, Magnus P, Meltzer HM, Haugen M, Ueland PM: Patterns and predictors of folic acid supplement use among pregnant women: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:1134–1141.
  27. Forster DA, Wills G, Denning A, Bolger M: The use of folic acid and other vitamins before and during pregnancy in a group of women in Melbourne, Australia. Midwifery DOI 10.1016/j.midw2007.01.019.
  28. Cnattingius S, Bergstrom R, Lipworth L, Kramer MS: Prepregnancy weight and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med 1998;338:147–152.
  29. Olsen SF, Mikkelsen TB, Knudsen VK, Orozova-Bekkevold I, Halldorsson TI, Strom M, Osterdal ML: Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2007;21:76–86.
  30. Olafsdottir AS, Skuladottir GV, Thorsdottir I, Hauksson A, Thorgeirsdottir H, Steingrimsdottir L: Relationship between high consumption of marine fatty acids in early pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. BJOG 2006;113:301–309.
  31. Morley R, Carlin JB, Pasco JA, Wark JD: Maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone concentrations and offspring birth size. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:906–912.
  32. Mannion CA, Gray-Donald K, Koski KG: Association of low intake of milk and vitamin D during pregnancy with decreased birth weight. CMAJ 2006;174:1273–1277.
  33. Javaid MK, Crozier SR, Harvey NC, Gale CR, Dennison EM, Boucher BJ, Arden NK, Godfrey KM, Cooper C: Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 2006;367:36–43.
  34. Hypponen E: Vitamin D for the prevention of preeclampsia? A hypothesis. Nutr Rev 2005;63:225–232.
  35. Halhali A, Villa AR, Madrazo E, Soria MC, Mercado E, Diaz L, Avila E, Garabedian M, Larrea F: Longitudinal changes in maternal serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and insulin like growth factor I levels in pregnant women who developed preeclampsia: comparison with normotensive pregnant women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2004;89–90:553–556.
  36. Dahl L, Meltzer HM, Opsahl JL, Julshamn K: Iodine intake and status in two groups of Norwegians. Scand J Nutr 2003;47:170–178.
    External Resources
  37. Glinoer D: The regulation of thyroid function during normal pregnancy: importance of the iodine nutrition status. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;18:133–152.
  38. Delange F: Iodine deficiency in Europe and its consequences: an update. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002;29(suppl 2):S404–S416.
  39. Glinoer D: Clinical and biological consequences of iodine deficiency during pregnancy. Endocr Dev 2007;10:62–85.
  40. Petrakos G, Panagopoulos P, Koutras I, Kazis A, Panagiotakos D, Economou A, Kanellopoulos N, Salamalekis E, Zabelas A: A comparison of the dietary and total intake of micronutrients in a group of pregnant Greek women with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2006;127:166–171.
  41. Rothman KJ, Moore LL, Singer MR, Nguyen US, Mannino S, Milunsky A: Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake. N Engl J Med 1995;333:1369–1373.
  42. Bonham M, O’Connor JM, McAnena LB, Walsh PM, Downes CS, Hannigan BM, Strain JJ: Zinc supplementation has no effect on lipoprotein metabolism, hemostasis, and putative indices of copper status in healthy men. Biol Trace Elem Res 2003;93:75–86.
  43. Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW: Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699–706.