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Vol. 26, No. 2, 2008
Issue release date: September 2008
Free Access
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:123–137
(DOI:10.1159/000148190)

fMRI Activation Changes during Successful Episodic Memory Encoding and Recognition in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Relative to Cognitively Healthy Older Adults

Trivedi M.A.a · Murphy C.M.a · Goetz C.a · Shah R.C.b, d · Gabrieli J.D.E.e · Whitfield-Gabrieli S.e · Turner D.A.c · Stebbins G.T.a
Departments of aNeurological Sciences, bFamily Medicine and cNuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology, and dRush Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Ill., and eDepartment of Brain and Cognitive Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA
email Corresponding Author

Abstract

Background/Aims: Previous functional MRI studies in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AMCI), a putative, prodromal form of Alzheimer’s disease, reveal substantial regional changes in brain activation during episodic memory function. Methods: Functional MRI was applied to examine changes in brain activation during different stages of episodic memory function using a subsequent memory task in individuals with AMCI relative to older normal controls. Results: We found that the AMCI group displayed greater activation in the right hippocampus but less activation in the frontal cortex relative to the older normal control group during intentional encoding of items that were subsequently recognized. We observed nearly the opposite pattern of results for successful recognition. The AMCI group displayed less activation in the medial temporal cortex but greater activation in the frontal cortex. In addition, the AMCI group showed reduced activation in the medial temporal and frontal cortices during incidental encoding of novel information during recognition. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that brain activation differences in individuals with AMCI are modulated by the stage of episodic memory examined (i.e. intentional vs. incidental encoding vs. recognition). These observations may help to clarify some of the conflicting findings regarding brain activation changes in AMCI.


 goto top of outline Key Words

  • Incidental encoding
  • Intentional encoding
  • Memory success
  • Medial temporal cortex
  • Task performance
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Alzheimer’s disease

 goto top of outline Abstract

Background/Aims: Previous functional MRI studies in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AMCI), a putative, prodromal form of Alzheimer’s disease, reveal substantial regional changes in brain activation during episodic memory function. Methods: Functional MRI was applied to examine changes in brain activation during different stages of episodic memory function using a subsequent memory task in individuals with AMCI relative to older normal controls. Results: We found that the AMCI group displayed greater activation in the right hippocampus but less activation in the frontal cortex relative to the older normal control group during intentional encoding of items that were subsequently recognized. We observed nearly the opposite pattern of results for successful recognition. The AMCI group displayed less activation in the medial temporal cortex but greater activation in the frontal cortex. In addition, the AMCI group showed reduced activation in the medial temporal and frontal cortices during incidental encoding of novel information during recognition. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that brain activation differences in individuals with AMCI are modulated by the stage of episodic memory examined (i.e. intentional vs. incidental encoding vs. recognition). These observations may help to clarify some of the conflicting findings regarding brain activation changes in AMCI.

Copyright © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


 goto top of outline References
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  3. Desgranges B, Baron JC, de la Sayette V, Petit-Taboue MC, Benali K, Landeau B, Lechevalier B, Eustache F: The neural substrates of memory systems impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a PET study of resting brain glucose utilization. Brain 1998;121:611–631.
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 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Glenn T. Stebbins, PhD
Rush University Medical Center, Department of Neurological Sciences
1725 West Harrison, Suite 309
Chicago, IL 60612 (USA)
Tel. +1 312 563 3854, Fax +1 312 563 4009, E-Mail gstebbin@rush.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: April 19, 2008
Published online: July 28, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 15
Number of Figures : 4, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 69


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Vol. 26, No. 2, Year 2008 (Cover Date: September 2008)

Journal Editor: Chan-Palay V. (New York, N.Y.)
ISSN: 1420–8008 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

Abstract

Background/Aims: Previous functional MRI studies in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AMCI), a putative, prodromal form of Alzheimer’s disease, reveal substantial regional changes in brain activation during episodic memory function. Methods: Functional MRI was applied to examine changes in brain activation during different stages of episodic memory function using a subsequent memory task in individuals with AMCI relative to older normal controls. Results: We found that the AMCI group displayed greater activation in the right hippocampus but less activation in the frontal cortex relative to the older normal control group during intentional encoding of items that were subsequently recognized. We observed nearly the opposite pattern of results for successful recognition. The AMCI group displayed less activation in the medial temporal cortex but greater activation in the frontal cortex. In addition, the AMCI group showed reduced activation in the medial temporal and frontal cortices during incidental encoding of novel information during recognition. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that brain activation differences in individuals with AMCI are modulated by the stage of episodic memory examined (i.e. intentional vs. incidental encoding vs. recognition). These observations may help to clarify some of the conflicting findings regarding brain activation changes in AMCI.



 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Glenn T. Stebbins, PhD
Rush University Medical Center, Department of Neurological Sciences
1725 West Harrison, Suite 309
Chicago, IL 60612 (USA)
Tel. +1 312 563 3854, Fax +1 312 563 4009, E-Mail gstebbin@rush.edu


 goto top of outline Article Information

Accepted: April 19, 2008
Published online: July 28, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 15
Number of Figures : 4, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 69


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Vol. 26, No. 2, Year 2008 (Cover Date: September 2008)

Journal Editor: Chan-Palay V. (New York, N.Y.)
ISSN: 1420–8008 (Print), eISSN: 1421–9824 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DEM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

References

  1. Petersen RC: Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med 2004;256:183–194.
  2. Hyman BT, Arriagada PV, van Hoesen GW, Damasio AR: Memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: an anatomical perspective; in Parks RW, Zec RF, Wilson RS (eds): Neuropsychology of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias. New York, Oxford University Press, 1993, pp 138–150.
  3. Desgranges B, Baron JC, de la Sayette V, Petit-Taboue MC, Benali K, Landeau B, Lechevalier B, Eustache F: The neural substrates of memory systems impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a PET study of resting brain glucose utilization. Brain 1998;121:611–631.
  4. Buckner RL, Snyder AZ, Shannon BJ, LaRossa G, Sachs R, Fotenos AF, Sheline YI, Klunk WE, Mathis CA, Morris JC, Mintun MA: Molecular, structural, and functional characterization of Alzheimer’s disease: evidence for a relationship between default activity, amyloid, and memory. J Neurosci 2005;25:7709–7717.
  5. Ries ML, Jabbar BM, Schmitz TW, Trivedi MA, Gleason CE, Carlsson CM, Rowley HA, Asthana S, Johnson SC: Anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment: relationship to activation of cortical midline structures involved in self-appraisal. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2007;13:450–461.
  6. Chetelat G, Baron JC: Early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: contribution of structural neuroimaging. Neuroimage 2003;18:525–541.
  7. Jack CR Jr, Petersen RC, Xu Y, O’Brien PC, Smith GE, Ivnik RJ, Tangalos EG, Kokmen E: Rate of medial temporal lobe atrophy in typical aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 1998;51:993–999.
  8. Stoub TR, Bulgakova M, Leurgans S, Bennett DA, Fleischman D, Turner DA, deToledo-Morrell L: MRI predictors of risk of incident Alzheimer disease: a longitudinal study. Neurology 2005;64:1520–1524.
  9. Engler H, Forsberg A, Almkvist O, Blomquist G, Larsson E, Savitcheva I, Wall A, Ringheim A, Langstrom B, Nordberg A: Two-year follow-up of amyloid deposition in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 2006;129:2856–2866.
  10. Forsberg A, Engler H, Almkvist O, Blomquist G, Hagman G, Wall A, Ringheim A, Langstrom B, Nordberg A: PET imaging of amyloid deposition in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging, in press.
  11. Klunk WE, Engler H, Nordberg A, Wang Y, Blomqvist G, Holt DP, Bergstrom M, Savitcheva I, Huang GF, Estrada S, Ausen B, Debnath ML, Barletta J, Price JC, Sandell J, Lopresti BJ, Wall A, Koivisto P, Antoni G, Mathis CA, Langstrom B: Imaging brain amyloid in Alzheimer’s disease with Pittsburgh Compound-B. Ann Neurol 2004;55:306–319.
  12. Small GW, Kepe V, Ercoli LM, Siddarth P, Bookheimer SY, Miller KJ, Lavretsky H, Burggren AC, Cole GM, Vinters HV, Thompson PM, Huang SC, Satyamurthy N, Phelps ME, Barrio JR: PET of brain amyloid and tau in mild cognitive impairment. N Engl J Med 2006;355:2652–2663.
  13. Cabeza R, Nyberg L: Imaging cognition II: an empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies. J Cogn Neurosci 2000;12:1–47.
  14. Wagner AD, Shannon BJ, Kahn I, Buckner RL: Parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. Trends Cogn Sci 2005;9:445–453.
  15. Drzezga A, Grimmer T, Henriksen G, Stangier I, Perneczky R, Diehl-Schmid J, Mathis CA, Klunk WE, Price J, Dekosky S, Wester HJ, Schwaiger M, Kurz A: Imaging of amyloid plaques and cerebral glucose metabolism in semantic dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 2008;39:619–633.
  16. Nordberg A: Amyloid imaging in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Opin Neurol 2007;20:398–402.
  17. Dickerson BC, Salat DH, Bates JF, Atiya M, Killiany RJ, Greve DN, Dale AM, Stern CE, Blacker D, Albert MS, Sperling RA: Medial temporal lobe function and structure in mild cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol 2004;56:27–35.
  18. Dickerson BC, Salat DH, Greve DN, Chua EF, Rand-Giovannetti E, Rentz DM, Bertram L, Mullin K, Tanzi RE, Blacker D, Albert MS, Sperling RA: Increased hippocampal activation in mild cognitive impairment compared to normal aging and AD. Neurology 2005;65:404–411.
  19. Hamalainen A, Pihlajamaki M, Tanila H, Hanninen T, Niskanen E, Tervo S, Karjalainen PA, Vanninen RL, Soininen H: Increased fMRI responses during encoding in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:1889–1903.
  20. Heun R, Freymann K, Erb M, Leube DT, Jessen F, Kircher TT, Grodd W: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and actual retrieval performance affect cerebral activation in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:404–413.
  21. Kircher TT, Weis S, Freymann K, Erb M, Jessen F, Grodd W, Heun R, Leube DT: Hippocampal activation in patients with mild cognitive impairment is necessary for successful memory encoding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:812–818.
  22. Johnson SC, Schmitz TW, Moritz CH, Meyerand ME, Rowley HA, Alexander AL, Hansen KW, Gleason CE, Carlsson CM, Ries ML, Asthana S, Chen K, Reiman EM, Alexander GE: Activation of brain regions vulnerable to Alzheimer’s disease: the effect of mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 2006;27:1604–1612.
  23. Mandzia JL, McAndrews MP, Grady CL, Graham SJ, Black SE: Neural correlates of incidental memory in mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study. Neurobiol Aging, in press.
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