Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 81, No. 3, 2008
Issue release date: October 2008
Section title: Review
Free Access
Urol Int 2008;81:247–251

Keratinizing Squamous Metaplasia of the Bladder: A Review

Ahmad I.a · Barnetson R.J.b · Krishna N.S.c
aBeatson Institute for Cancer Research and Departments of bPathology and cUrology, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK
email Corresponding Author

Imran Ahmad

Beatson Institute for Cancer Research

Garscube Estate, Switchback Road

Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD (UK)

Tel. +44 141 330 3973, Fax +44 141 201 2987, E-Mail


  1. Connery DB: Leukoplakia of the urinary bladder and its association with carcinoma. J Urol 1953;69:121–127.
  2. Khan MS, Thornhill JA, Gaffney E, Loftus B, Butler MB: Keratinizing squamous metaplasia of the bladder: natural history and rationalization of management based on review of 54 years experience. Eur Urol 2002;42:469–474.
  3. Morgan RJ, Cameron KM: Vesical leukoplakia. Br J Urol 1980;52:96–100.
  4. Mueller SC, Thueroff JW, Rumpelt HJ: Urothelial leukoplakia: new aspects of aetiology and therapy. J Urol 1987;137:979–983.
  5. Ozbey I, Aksoy Y, Polat O, Bicgi O, Demirel A: Squamous metaplasia of the bladder: findings in 18 patients and review of the literature. Int Urol Nephrol 1999;31:457–461.
  6. Akdas A, Turkeri L: The impact of squamous metaplasia in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Int Urol Nephrol 1991;23:333–336.
  7. Benson Jr RC, Swanson SK, Farrow GM: Relationship of leukoplakia to urothelial malignancy. J Urol 1984;131:507–511.
  8. Højgaard AD, Jessen AL: A case of vesical leukoplakia. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991;70:623–624.
  9. Guo CC, Fine SW, Epstein JI: Noninvasive squamous lesions in the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30:883–891.
  10. Reece RW, Koontz WW Jr: Leukoplakia of the urinary tract: a review. J Urol 1975;114:165–171.
  11. Marion G: Leukoplakia of the bladder. J Urol 1920;9:257–261.
  12. Abeshouse BS, Tankin LH: Leukoplakia of the renal pelvis and bladder. J Urol 1953;76:330–337.
  13. Wiener DP, Koss LG, Sablay B, Freed SZ: The prevalence and significance of Brunn’s nests, cystitis cystica and squamous metaplasia in normal bladders. J Urol 1979;122:317–321.
  14. Delnay KM, Stonehill WH, Goldman H, Jukkola AF, Dmochowski RR: Bladder histological changes associated with chronic indwelling urinary catheter. J Urol 1999;161:1106–1108; discussion 1108–1109.
  15. Kvist E, Sjolin KE, Laursen H, Orntoft TF, Sanchez Sturmer MA: Squamous metaplasia of the bladder urothelium. A retrospective study of 36 patients. AMPIS 1992;100:650–654.
  16. Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Andersson LC, Brausi M, De Matteis A, Montironi R, Sesterhenn I, van det Kwast T, Mazerolles C: Preneoplastic non-papillary lesions and conditions of the urinary bladder. An update based on the Ancona International Consultation. Virchows Arch 2002;440:3–11.
  17. Roehrborn CG, Teigland CM, Spence HM: Progression of leukoplakia of the bladder to squamous cell carcinoma 19 years after complete urinary diversion. J Urol 1988;140:603–604.
  18. O’Flynn JD, Mullaney J: Leukoplakia of the bladder. A report on 20 cases, including 2 cases progressing to squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Urol 1967;39:461–471.
  19. Holley PS, Mellinger GT: Leukoplakia of the bladder and carcinoma. J Urol 1961;86:235–241.
  20. DeKock MLS, Anderson CK, Clark PB: Vesical leukoplakia progressing to squamous cell carcinoma in women. Br J Urol 1981;53:315–317.
  21. Walts AE, Sacks SA: Squamous metaplasia and invasive epidermoid carcinoma of bladder. Urology 1977;9:317–320.
  22. Zachwiej J, Witeska A, Plaszczynski J: Tumor of the urinary bladder preceded by vesical leukoplakia. Int Urol Nephrol 1981;13:147–152.
  23. Hodder SL, Mahmoud AA, Sorenson K, Weinert DM, Stein RL, Ouma JH, Koech D, King CH: Predisposition to urinary tract epithelial metaplasia in Schistosoma haematobium infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2000; 63:133–138.