Objective: To identify markers that predict the synchronous or metachronous development of bladder cancer in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) tumors. Materials and Methods: Between March 2001 and December 2005, we identified 38 consecutive patients who had been histologically diagnosed as having transitional cell carcinoma in the renal pelvis and ureter. These patients were divided into 2 groups (n = 19 per group): group 1 patients with metachronous or synchronous bladder cancer, and group 2 patients with UUT tumors only. We analyzed the differences between the 2 groups with respect to the expression of various biomarkers (p53, Rb, Ki-67, PTEN, and bcl-2) and in terms of clinical parameters. Results: The 2 groups differed significantly in terms of multiplicity (p = 0.029), papillary configuration (p = 0.001), the presence of lymphovascular emboli (p = 0.019), and Ki-67 overexpression (p = 0.029) in UUT tumors. Multivariate analysis revealed that Ki-67 overexpression in UUT tumor tissues significantly predicts bladder cancer development (HR 6.440; 95% CI 1.121–37.014; log rank p = 0.037). Conclusion: Ki-67 overexpression in UUT tumor tissues was found to be an independent predictor of the development of bladder cancer in UUT tumor patients.
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